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Global Challenges in Radiation Oncology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195909 Year: Pages: 66 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-590-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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In the United States, much of the research is focused on developing new and very expensive technologies and drugs - often without a major therapeutic benefit. In resource limited countries, basic oncology care is frequently lacking. In addition, the benefits of various chemo-radiotherapy combinations for a number of malignancies are unknown as these populations have not been adequately investigated. For oncologists in these countries who have marginal to adequate resources, accrual to clinical trials is virtually non-existent to minimal, due to the complexities of their population and competing co-morbidities. As a result, there is a tremendous disparity in treatment outcomes for these populations, compared to those in developed countries. Therefore, we have asked a number of oncologists from different parts of the world to report their experience. Topics that will be covered include locally advanced breast and cervical cancer (India, South Africa), human resources for cancer control in India, systematic review of radiation resources in low and middle income countries, planning national radiotherapy services, building sustainable partnerships through the newly formed ICEC (International Cancer Export Corps), cancer disparities among American Indians, and training radiation oncologists in these under served parts of the world. Authors will discuss "lessons learned" from their populations, practical suggestions to address these disparities, and how we as a global oncology community can address, and mitigate these global challenges. The editorial by Dr. Coleman and myself highlights the invaluable contributions from our global contributors. Thank you for taking the time to read this special issue on global cancer disparities. We are all energized to begin addressing the needs of our cancer patients worldwide.

Data-Based Radiation Oncology - Design of Clinical Trials

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454389 Year: Pages: 109 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-438-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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In radiation oncology as in many other specialties clinical trials are essential to investigate new therapy approaches. Usually, preparation for a prospective clinical trial is extremely time consuming until ethics approval is obtained. To test a new treatment usually many years pass before it can be implemented in the routine care. During that time, already new interventions emerge, new drugs appear on the market, technical & physical innovations are being implemented, novel biology driven concepts are translated into clinical approaches while we are still investigating the ones from years ago. Another problem is associated with molecular diagnostics and the growing amount of tumor specific biomarkers which allows for a better stratification of patient subgroups. On the other side, this may result in a much longer time for patient recruiting and consequently in larger multicenter trials. Moreover, all of the relevant data must be readily available for treatment decision making, treatment as well as follow-up, and ultimately for trial evaluation. This challenges even more for agreed standards in data acquisition, quality and management. How could we change the way currently clinical trials are performed in a way they are safe and ethically justifiable and speed up the initiation process, so we can provide new and better treatments faster for our patients?Further, while we rely on various quantitative information handling distributed, large heterogeneous amounts of data efficiently is very important. Thus data management becomes a strong focus. A good infrastructure helps to plan, tailor and conduct clinical trials in a way they are easy and quickly analyzable.In this research topic we want to discuss new ideas for intelligent trial designs and concepts for data management.

Machine Learning With Radiation Oncology Big Data

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457304 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-730-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Radiation oncology is uniquely positioned to harness the power of big data as vast amounts of data are generated at an unprecedented pace for individual patients in imaging studies and radiation treatments worldwide. The big data encountered in the radiotherapy clinic may include patient demographics stored in the electronic medical record (EMR) systems, plan settings and dose volumetric information of the tumors and normal tissues generated by treatment planning systems (TPS), anatomical and functional information from diagnostic and therapeutic imaging modalities (e.g., CT, PET, MRI and kVCBCT) stored in picture archiving and communication systems (PACS), as well as the genomics, proteomics and metabolomics information derived from blood and tissue specimens. Yet, the great potential of big data in radiation oncology has not been fully exploited for the benefits of cancer patients due to a variety of technical hurdles and hardware limitations.With recent development in computer technology, there have been increasing and promising applications of machine learning algorithms involving the big data in radiation oncology. This research topic is intended to present novel technological breakthroughs and state-of-the-art developments in machine learning and data mining in radiation oncology in recent years.

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