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Mineral Surface Reactions at the Nanoscale

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ISBN: 9783038978961 9783038978978 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-897-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Reactions at mineral surfaces are central to all geochemical processes. As minerals comprise the rocks of the Earth, the processes occurring at the mineral–aqueous fluid interface control the evolution of the rocks and hence the structure of the crust of the Earth during processes such as metamorphism, metasomatism, and weathering. In recent years focus has been concentrated on mineral surface reactions made possible through the development of advanced analytical methods such as atomic force microscopy (AFM), advanced electron microscopies (SEM and TEM), phase shift interferometry, confocal Raman spectroscopy, and advanced synchrotron-based applications, to enable mineral surfaces to be imaged and analyzed at the nanoscale. Experiments are increasingly complemented by molecular simulations to confirm or predict the results of these studies. This has enabled new and exciting possibilities to elucidate the mechanisms that govern mineral–fluid reactions. In this Special Issue, “Mineral Surface Reactions at the Nanoscale”, we present 12 contributions that highlight the role and importance of mineral surfaces in varying fields of research.

Recent Trends in Phosphate Mining and Beneficiation and Related Waste Management

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ISBN: 9783039281725 9783039281732 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-173-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Mining and Metallurgy
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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The extraction of apatite minerals is becoming more and more crucial with the depletion of high-grade ores. At the same time, many streams of waste are continuously being produced by the phosphate industry, including calcareous and siliceous waste rocks, clayey sludge and phosphogypsum. These waste products are produced in huge volumes reaching a ratio of between 5 to 10 tons of waste per each ton of concentrated phosphate. The management of these waste products is becoming a real issue in terms of growing public awareness and environmental and financial aspects. In addition, phosphate ores are known to contain other critical raw materials (CRM) such as rare earth elements and uranium. The recovery of these vital elements from phosphate waste may help to develop the needs of the green energy of the future and contribute to the achievement of the sustainable development goals. In this Special Issue, insights related to the following aspects were studied: phosphate extraction and beneficiation, novel phosphate ores, the fine characterization of phosphate ores and waste, phosphoric acid production, critical raw material (CRM) recovery from phosphate ores and waste, reprocessing of phosphate wastes and finally the valorization and reuse of phosphate waste and phosphogypsum.

Current Trends on Monomial and Binomial Ideals

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ISBN: 9783039283606 9783039283613 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-361-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mathematics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Historically, the study of monomial ideals became fashionable after the pioneering work by Richard Stanley in 1975 on the upper bound conjecture for spheres. On the other hand, since the early 1990s, under the strong influence of Gröbner bases, binomial ideals became gradually fashionable in commutative algebra. The last ten years have seen a surge of research work in the study of monomial and binomial ideals. Remarkable developments in, for example, finite free resolutions, syzygies, Hilbert functions, toric rings, as well as cohomological invariants of ordinary powers, and symbolic powers of monomial and binomial ideals, have been brought forward. The theory of monomial and binomial ideals has many benefits from combinatorics and Göbner bases. Simultaneously, monomial and binomial ideals have created new and exciting aspects of combinatorics and Göbner bases. In the present Special Issue, particular attention was paid to monomial and binomial ideals arising from combinatorial objects including finite graphs, simplicial complexes, lattice polytopes, and finite partially ordered sets, because there is a rich and intimate relationship between algebraic properties and invariants of these classes of ideals and the combinatorial structures of their combinatorial counterparts. This volume gives a brief summary of recent achievements in this area of research. It will stimulate further research that encourages breakthroughs in the theory of monomial and binomial ideals. This volume provides graduate students with fundamental materials in this research area. Furthermore, it will help researchers find exciting activities and avenues for further exploration of monomial and binomial ideals. The editors express our thanks to the contributors to the Special Issue. Funds for APC (article processing charge) were partially supported by JSPS (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science) Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) entitled ""The Birth of Modern Trends on Commutative Algebra and Convex Polytopes with Statistical and Computational Strategies"" (JP 26220701). The publication of this volume is one of the main activities of the grant.

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