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Protein Interaction Networks in Health and Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199822 Year: Pages: 89 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-982-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The identification and mapping of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is a major goal in systems biology. Experimental data are currently produced in large scale using a variety of high-throughput assays in yeast or mammalian systems. Analysis of these data using computational tools leads to the construction of large protein interaction networks, which help researchers identify novel protein functions.However, our current view of protein interaction networks is still limited and there is an active field of research trying to further develop this concept to include important processes: the topology of interactions and their changes in real time, the effects of competition for binding to the same protein region, PPI variation due to alternative splicing or post-translational modifications, etc.In particular, a clinically relevant topic for development of the concept of protein interactions networks is the consideration of mutant isoforms, which may be responsible for a pathological condition. Mutations in proteins may result in loss of normal interactions and appearance of novel abnormal interactions that may affect a protein’s function and biological cycle.This Research Topic presents novel findings and recent achievements in the field of protein interaction networks with a focus on disease. Authors describe methods for the identification and quantification of PPIs, the annotation and analysis of networks, considering PPIs and protein complexes formed by mutant proteins associated with pathological conditions or genetic diseases.

Function and Flexibility: Friend or Foe?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199723 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-972-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General)
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Louis Sullivan (1856 - 1924) revolutionized architecture by designing the first skyscraper and he became famous by proclaiming that “form follows function”. When x-ray crystallographers visualized the structures of proteins for the first time, the structural biology field embraced the view that “function follows form” as the 3D-architecture of proteins could unveil various aspects of their function. Despite the original “1 gene - 1 protein structure - 1 function” relationship, nowadays a far more complicated picture emerges where the flexibility and dynamics of a protein can play a central role in a multitude of functions. The ultimate form(s) that a protein adopt when interacting with (a) partner molecule(s) are the most biologically relevant and in this context Sullivan’s quote is still appropriate: the conformation that the protein adopts follows from the function of that protein. Despite the fact that many well-characterized proteins have a well-folded structure, there is a growing interest in the conformational flexibility within proteins. This flexibility is also a balanced phenomenon: excess of flexibility can be detrimental for protein behaviour, as well as the lack thereof. Notwithstanding its importance, studying intrinsically disordered protein regions or conformational rearrangements can be a very challenging. Therefore, flexibility can be perceived as a friend or a foe, depending on the context. This e-book showcases the impact of the study of protein flexibility on the structural biology field and presents protein flexibility in the context of disease as well as its benign aspects. As detailed knowledge of the structural aspects of polypeptides remains essential to comprehend protein function, one of the future challenges for structural biology also lies with large macromolecular protein complexes. Also there the dynamics and flexibility are essential for proper functioning and molecular movement, which is an important aspect of living matter. This challenge stimulated the development of advanced techniques to study protein flexibility and the use of those techniques to address fundamental biological and biomedical problems. Those innovations should help us to unravel the intimate link between protein function and flexibility and explore new horizons.

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