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Amyloid-beta clearance in Alzheimer's disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194438 Year: Pages: 111 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-443-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Abstract

Strong evidence continues to accumulate indicating that amyloid-beta (Aß) is a central part of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis in spite of the negative evidence coming from failed clinical trials. Therefore, mechanisms of clearance of Aß are of great interest in understanding AD pathogenesis and the development of effective treatments. This topic focuses on the issues related to Aß clearance in AD. The topics covered include proteases that degrade Aß and their localization, regulation, and functions. This topic also covers issues related to clearance through uptake by glia and through low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor mediated mechanisms. Signal transduction related to AD pathology and clearance is also addressed. Finally, immunotherapy and other novel therapeutic approaches are discussed.

Enamel Research: Mechanisms and Characterization

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450190 Year: Pages: 130 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-019-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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The rodent incisor is a good model system to study the molecular and cellular events that are involved in enamel biomineralization. Incisors in rodents continuously erupt during their lifespan, thus allowing the study of all stages of enamel synthesis, deposition, mineralization and maturation in the same tissue section. This model system has provided invaluable insight into the specifics of enamel formation as a basis to understand human pathologies such as amelogenesis imperfect. Furthermore, the rodent incisor allows exploration and understanding of some of the most fundamental mechanisms that govern biomineralization. Enamel is the most mineralized, hardest tissue in the body. It is formed within a unique organic matrix that, unlike other hard tissues such as bone and dentin, does not contain collagen. The formation of enamel can be divided into two main stages: the secretory and maturation stage. During the secretory stage, a highly ordered arrangement of hydroxyapatite crystals is formed under the influence of structural matrix proteins such as amelogenin, ameloblastin and enamelin. During the maturation stage, the organic matrix is removed and hydroxyapatite crystals expand to ultimately yield a functional hard structure consisting of over 96% mineral. Research efforts over the past decades have mainly focused on the secretory stage, providing novel insights into the concept of biomineralization. However, the events that occur during the maturation stage have not been yet explored in detail, likely because the physiological roles of the enamel-forming ameloblasts are more diverse and complex at this stage. Mature ameloblasts are involved in the regulation of calcium transport in large amounts, phosphate and protein fragments in and out of the maturing enamel and provide regulatory mechanisms for the control of the pH. In recent years, increased efforts have been dedicated towards defining the molecular events during enamel maturation. The development of an ever-increasing number of transgenic animal models has clearly demonstrated the essential roles of matrix and non-matrix proteins during enamel formation. Multiple traditional and modern analytical techniques are applied for the characterization of enamel in these animals. The need for this Research Topic therefore stems from new information that has been generated on molecular events during the enamel maturation stage and the development and application of highly advanced analytical techniques to characterize dental enamel. The benefits and limitations of these techniques need to be reviewed and their application standardized for valid comparative studies.

Plant Innate Immunity 2.0

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ISBN: 9783038975809 Year: Pages: 386 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-581-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Plants possess a rather complex and efficient immune system. During their evolutionary history, plants have developed various defense strategies in order to recognize and distinguishing between self and non-self, and face pathogens and animal pests. Accordingly, to study the plant innate immunity represents a new frontier in the plant pathology and crop protection fields. This book is structured in 6 sections. The first part introduces some basic and general aspects of the plant innate immunity and crop protection. Sections 2–5 focus on fungal and oomycete diseases (section 2), bacterial and phytoplasma diseases (section 3), virus diseases (section 4), and insect pests (section 5), with a number of case studies and plant–pathogen/pest interactions. The last section deals with plant disease detection and control. The book aims to highlight new trends in these relevant areas of plant sciences, providing a global perspective that is useful for future and innovative ideas.

Keywords

dieback --- disease management --- Lasiodiplodia theobromae --- mango --- pathogenicity --- Bromoviridae --- plant–virus interactions --- plant defense response --- Prune dwarf virus --- replication process --- systemic and local movement --- plant proteases --- plant immunity --- MTI --- ETI --- SAR --- ISR --- RNA silencing --- RTNLB --- Agrobacterium --- biotic stress responses --- calcium --- calcium signature --- calmodulin --- CMLs --- CDPKs --- plant immunity --- symbiosis --- cell wall --- cellulose synthase --- hypersensitive response --- pathogenesis related-protein 2 --- plant-virus interaction --- Potato virus Y --- ultrastructure --- aphid resistance --- Arabidopsis thaliana --- hydroperoxide lyase --- Macrosiphum euphorbiae --- Myzus persicae --- Solanum lycopersicum --- ?-3 fatty acid desaturase --- Arabidopsis --- azelaic acid --- glycerol-3-phosphate --- light dependent signalling --- methyl salicylate --- N-hydroxypipecolic acid --- pipecolic acid --- salicylic acid --- SAR signalling --- spectral distribution of light --- tobacco --- rice --- Chilo suppressalis --- mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 --- jasmonic acid --- salicylic acid --- ethylene --- herbivore-induced defense response --- downy mildew --- grapevine --- PRRs --- PTI --- VaHAESA --- bismerthiazol --- rice --- induced defense responses --- chemical elicitors --- Sogatella furcifera --- defense-related signaling pathways --- tomato gray mold --- tomato leaf mold --- Bacillus subtilis --- biological control --- Capsicum annuum --- Ralstonia solanacearum --- CaWRKY40b --- immunity --- negative regulator --- transcriptional modulation --- Capsicum annuum --- CaWRKY22 --- immunity --- Ralstonia Solanacearum --- WRKY networks --- metabolomics --- plant defence --- plant–microbe interactions --- priming --- pre-conditioning --- citrus decline disease --- Citrus sinensis --- Bakraee --- “Candidatus Liberibacter” --- “Candidatus Phytoplasma” --- microbiota --- innate immunity --- basal defense --- rice blast --- Magnaporthe oryzae --- proteomics --- iTRAQ --- candidate disease resistance gene --- disease resistance --- downy mildew --- garden impatiens --- leaf transcriptome --- New Guinea impatiens --- RNA-Seq --- polyphenol oxidase --- Camellia sinensis --- Ectropis obliqua --- wounding --- regurgitant --- rice --- OsGID1 --- gibberellin --- herbivore-induced plant defenses --- Nilaparvata lugens --- plant protection products --- agrochemicals --- sustainable crop protection --- food security

Human Milk and Lactation

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ISBN: 9783039289233 / 9783039289240 Year: Pages: 368 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-924-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Abstract

Human milk is uniquely tailored to meet infants’ specific nutritional requirements. However, it is more than just “milk”. This dynamic and bioactive fluid allows mother–infant signalling over lactation, guiding the infant in the developmental and physiological processes. It exerts protection and life-long biological effects, playing a crucial role in promoting healthy growth and optimal cognitive development. The latest scientific advances have provided insight into different components of human milk and their dynamic changes over time. However, the complexity of human milk composition and the synergistic mechanisms responsible for its beneficial health effects have not yet been unravelled. Filling this knowledge gap will shed light on the biology of the developing infant and will contribute to the optimization of infant feeding, particularly that of the most vulnerable infants. Greater understanding of human milk will also help in elucidating the best strategies for its storage and handling. The increasing knowledge on human milk’s bioactive compounds together with the rapidly-advancing technological achievements will greatly enhance their use as prophylactic or therapeutic agents. The current Special Issue aims to welcome original works and literature reviews further exploring the complexity of human milk composition, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects associated with breastfeeding, and the factors and determinants involved in lactation, including its promotion and support.

Keywords

human milk --- preterm --- term --- infants --- lipids --- fatty acids --- human milk fortification --- docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) --- mothers’ own milk --- donor human milk --- arachidonic acid (ARA) --- eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) --- bioactive factors --- carotenoids --- dietary intake --- high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) --- human milk --- lactation --- maternal diet --- prospective study --- Human Milk --- Preterm infant --- Phospholipids --- Lipidomics --- Milk Fat Globule Membrane --- breastfeeding --- late preterm --- protective factors --- promotion of breastfeeding --- breastfeeding support --- mammary gland --- immune-active proteins --- proteases --- protease inhibitors --- digestive tract --- antenatal --- expressing --- pregnancy --- video instruction --- colostrum --- breastfeeding --- online --- clinical trial --- lactation --- infants --- breastfeeding --- lactating women --- human milk benefits --- colostrum --- milk therapy --- bioactive factors --- 2?-fucosyllactose (2?FL) --- 3?-sialyllactose (3?SL) --- disialyllacto-N-tetraose (DSLNT) --- human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) --- milk group --- secretor --- Lewis --- lactation --- preterm --- adipokines --- antioxidants --- breastfeeding --- cytokines --- growth factors --- human milk --- preterm --- term --- neonate --- infant --- macronutrients --- protein --- fat --- lactose --- nutrition --- passive immunization --- maternal immunoglobulins --- lactation --- prematurity --- flu vaccine --- human milk --- human milk --- omega-3 fatty acids --- docosahexaenoic acid --- eicosapentaenoic acid --- ?-linolenic acid --- dietary intake --- food frequency questionnaire --- vitamin D deficiency --- supplementation --- breastfeeding --- mothers --- infants --- human milk --- targeted metabolomics --- amino acids --- lipid metabolites --- LC-MS --- flow injection analysis --- human milk --- protein --- glycoprotein --- endogenous peptide --- breastfeeding --- hormones --- adipokines --- breast milk --- growth --- body composition --- term infant --- human milk --- term --- preterm --- calcium --- phosphorus --- magnesium --- zinc --- iron --- copper --- iodine --- selenium --- potassium --- sodium --- n-9 fatty acid --- nervonic acid --- human milk fat --- infant formula --- lactational stage --- donor human milk --- high pressure processing --- carotenoids --- antioxidant capacity --- lipids --- bile salt stimulated lipase --- preterm --- retinol --- ?-tocopherol --- inadequate intake --- nutritional status --- breast milk --- undernourishment --- dietary assessment --- multiple source method --- human milk --- celiac disease --- hormones --- fatty acids --- duration of lactation --- country --- carbohydrate --- fat --- breastfeeding difficulties --- early breastfeeding cessation --- term infants --- breastfeeding support --- human milk --- donor milk --- choline --- phosphocholine --- storage --- pasteurization --- milk banking --- pumping --- breastfeeding --- lactation --- n/a

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