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Prebiotics and Probiotics

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ISBN: 9783038971689 9783038971696 Year: Pages: 486 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-169-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-19 11:22:00
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The purpose of this Special Issue, “Prebiotics and Probiotics”, is to focus on the importance of intestinal microbiota for human health and disease and the possibilities of influencing its composition and function with probiotics and prebiotics.The goal is to clarify that the microbiome in the maternal fetal and during pediatric age, as well as the immediate changes that occur as new microbes are acquired postnatally play major roles in subsequent health and disease. Rapidly developing technologies for multi-omic analyses and systems biology are shifting paradigms in both scientific knowledge and clinical care.Finally, the idea will be to provide health professionals with comprehensive, understandable and highly readable updated information on the intestinal microbiota, probiotics and prebiotics.]

Keywords

microbiota --- prebiotics --- probiotics

Toll-Like Receptor Activation in Immunity vs. Tolerance

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196364 Year: Pages: 75 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-636-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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The innate immune system has evolved means to recognize and react suitably to foreign entities such as infectious agents. In many cases infectious microorganisms threaten the integrity and function of the target organs or tissues; therefore, consequent to their recognition the immune system becomes activated to ensure their elimination. Toll-like receptors (TLR) constitute a family of receptors specialized in the recognition of molecular patterns typically associated with infectious agents. Different TLRs exist, each selective for molecular entities and motifs belonging to a specific pathogen group. Consequently, it is thought that the molecular nature of invading microorganisms activates specific TLRs to drive adequate anti-infectious immunity. For instance, nucleic acid-specific, intracellular receptors (TLR3/7/8/9) are used to sense viruses and drive antiviral immunity, while other receptors (such as TLR2 and TLR4) recognize and promote immunity against bacteria, yeast, and fungi. Yet, it is becoming evident that activation of TLR pathways trigger mechanisms that not only stimulate but also regulate the immune system. For instance, TLR stimulation by viruses will drive antiviral interferon but also immunoregulatory cytokine production and regulatory T cell activation. Stimulation of TLRs by bacteria or using molecular agonists can also trigger both immune stimulatory and regulatory responses. TLR stimulation by infectious agents likely serves to activate but also control anti-infectious immunity, for instance prevent potential immunopathological tissue damage which can be caused by acute immune defense mechanisms. Previous work by us and others has shown that the immunoregulatory arm of TLR stimulation can additionally help control autoreactive processes in autoimmune disease. Hence, it is becoming established that gut commensals, which also play a crucial part in the control of autoimmune disease, establish immune regulatory mechanisms through activation of particular TLRs. In sum, it appears that TLRs are key immune players that not only stimulate but also regulate immune processes in health and disease. In this Research Topic, we wish to review the dual role of TLRs as activators and regulators of immune responses. We aim to motivate data-driven opinions as to the importance of context of TLR agonism for determining immune activation vs. regulation. The presentation of ongoing original works, as well as data and opinions around other innate immune receptors pertaining to this topic, are also encouraged.

Immunobiotics: Interactions of Beneficial Microbes with the Immune System

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453825 Year: Pages: 309 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-382-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology --- Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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The term “immunobiotics” has been proposed to define microbial strains able to beneficially regulate the mucosal immune system. Research in immunobiotics has significantly evolved as researchers employed cutting-edge technologies to investigate the complex interactions of these beneficial microorganisms with the immune system. During the last decade, our understanding of immunobiotics-host interaction was profoundly transformed by the discovery of microbial molecules and host receptors involved in the modulation of gut associated immune system, as well as the systemic and distant mucosal immune systems. In recent years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of reports describing the beneficial effects of immunobiotics in diseases such as intestinal and respiratory infections, allergy, inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, immunosuppression, and several other immune-mediated conditions. Evidence is also emerging of immunobiotics related molecules with immunomodulatory functions leading to the production of pharmabiotics, which may positively influence human or animal health. Therefore, research in immunobiotics continue to contribute not only to food but also medical and pharmaceutical fields. The compilation of research articles included in this ebook should help reader to have an overview of the recent advances in immunobiotics.

Probiotics and Prebiotics in Pediatrics

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ISBN: 9783038979500 / 9783038979517 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-951-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The goal of this Special Issue, “Probiotics and Prebiotics in Pediatrics”, is to focus on the importance of pediatric nutrition with probiotics and prebiotics to improve gastrointestinal health in newborn, infants, and children.Specifically, the aim is to clarify if probiotics and prebiotics can influence gut microbiota composition and host-interaction favoring human health and preventing diseases.This new information will provide health care professionals with a widespread, clear and update evidence on probiotics and prebiotics and intestinal gut microbiota in pediatric care.

Keywords

acute diarrhea --- children --- Bacillus clausii --- efficacy --- randomized controlled trials --- breast feeding --- formula feeding --- human milk oligosaccharide --- 2?-fucosyllactose --- Lacto-N-neotetraose --- microbiota --- bifidobacteria --- acute gastroenteritis --- children --- Lactobacillus reuteri --- oral rehydration solution --- probiotics --- zinc --- probiotics --- allergy --- infants --- pediatrics --- human milk oligosaccharides --- human milk --- infant formula --- necrotizing enterocolitis --- preterm infant --- preterm infant --- probiotic --- human milk --- probiotic strain --- safety --- fecal microbiota --- protein hydrolyzed formulas --- cow’s milk protein --- tolerance acquisition --- non-IgE mediated allergy --- microbiome --- intestinal microbiota --- microbial programming --- nutritional programming --- allergy --- prevention --- neonatal --- preterm --- breast milk --- oligosaccharides --- diversity --- necrotizing enterocolitis --- sepsis --- growth --- constipation --- prebiotic --- intestinal transit time --- infant --- Bifidobacterium --- Lactobacillus --- probiotics --- asthma --- Childhood Asthma Control Test --- peak expiratory flow rate --- immunoglobulin E --- “Probiotics”[Mesh] --- “Pregnancy”[Mesh] --- “Infant, Newborn”[Mesh] --- Bifidobacterium breve --- probiotics --- paediatrics --- therapeutic microbiology --- celiac disease --- iron deficiency anemia --- gluten-free diet --- inulin --- prebiotics --- iron absorption --- hepcidin --- probiotics --- microbiota --- celiac disease --- gluten free diet --- probiotics --- functional gastrointestinal disorders --- functional abdominal pain disorders --- functional constipation --- infantile colic --- infant --- colic --- lactobacilli --- n/a --- fecal microbiota --- protein hydrolyzed formulas --- cow’s milk protein --- tolerance acquisition --- non-IgE mediated allergy --- n/a

Natural Compounds as New Cancer Treatments

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ISBN: 9783039213658 / 9783039213665 Year: Pages: 128 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-366-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Cancer remains one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although many pharmacological and clinical advances have been made, there is a constant need for new molecules to improve the overall options for treatment. Natural compounds from animal, microbial, vegetal, or fungal origin represent countless sources of new compounds that can be used as anticancer drugs, provided their activity, bioavailability, and toxicity are adequate. This book aims to compile both original articles and reviews that cover the most recent advances in the use of natural compounds for cancer treatment, and provide new objectives and advice for future research in the field of biological activity of natural compounds.

Safety and Microbiological Quality

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ISBN: 9783039214914 / 9783039214921 Year: Pages: 126 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-492-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The safety and microbiological quality of fermented foods covers complementary aspects of such products. Food fermentation is primary intended to improve food preservation, thereby modifying food properties. However, the management of chemical and microbiological hazards is a leading aspect for innovative processing in this domain. Similarly, microbiological quality in fermented foods is of peculiar importance: all microorganisms with a positive effect, including probiotic bacteria, fermentative bacteria, Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts, can be relevant. The fitness of pro-technological microorganisms impacts nutritional quality, but also sensory properties and processing reliability. This book provides a broad view of factors which determine the safety and microbiological quality of fermented foods. A focus is made on the interconnection between starter properties and the expectations related to a probiotic effect. All chapters underline the involvement of fermented foods towards better resource management and increasing food and nutritional security, especially in developing countries.

The Interplay of Microbiome and Immune Response in Health and Diseases

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ISBN: 9783039216468 / 9783039216475 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-647-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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[Increasing evidence suggests that microbiota and especially the gut microbiota (the microbes inhabiting the gut including bacteria, archaea, viruses, and fungi) plays a key role in human physiology and pathology. Recent findings indicate how dysbiosis—an imbalance in the composition and organization of microbial populations—could severely impact the development of different medical conditions (from metabolic to mood disorders), providing new insights into the comprehension of diverse diseases, such as IBD, obesity, asthma, autism, stroke, diabetes, and cancer. Given that microbial cells in the gut outnumber host cells, microbiota influences human physiology both functionally and structurally. Microbial metabolites bridge various—even distant—areas of the organism by way of the immune and hormone system. For instance, it is now clear that the mutual interaction between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain (gut–brain axis), often involves gut microbiota, indicating that the crosstalk between the organism and its microbial residents represents a fundamental aspect of both the establishment and maintenance of healthy conditions. Moreover, it is crucial to recognize that beyond the intestinal tract, microbiota populates other host organs and tissues (e.g., skin and oral mucosa). We have edited this eBook with the aim of publishing manuscripts focusing on the impact of microbiota in the development of different diseases and their associated treatments.]

Keywords

microbiota --- rheumatoid arthritis --- anti-TNF-? --- methotrexate --- etanercept --- disease activity --- microbiome --- health --- precision medicine --- genomics --- bacteriocins --- bacteriophages --- antibiotics --- gastrointestinal diseases --- dysbiosis --- gut barrier --- gut microbiota --- virus --- vaginal microbiota --- HIV --- HPV --- HSV2 --- cytokines --- chemokines --- innate immunity --- adaptive immunity --- microbiota --- autoimmunity --- etiopathogenesis --- Candida albicans --- 2,3-dihydroxy-4-methoxyBenzaldehyde --- melanin --- colitis --- anaerobic bacteria --- aerobic bacteria --- gut microbiota --- gut-liver axis --- chronic liver diseases --- fecal transplantation --- probiotics --- gut microbiota --- immunological niche --- dysbiosis --- cancer --- immune system --- cutaneous immunity --- microbiome --- Staphylococcus spp., T cells --- Staphylococcus aureus --- Staphylococcus epidermis --- commensals --- atopic dermatitis --- intravenous immunoglobulin G --- colitis --- dextran sulfate sodium --- mice --- inflammation --- cytokines --- Candida albicans --- Escherichia coli --- Enterococcus faecalis --- gut microbiota --- chemo free treatment --- lymphoid malignancies --- 16S rRNA gene --- chondroitin sulfate disaccharide --- co-occurrence network --- global network --- microbial interactions --- microbiome --- modularity --- superoxide dismutase --- gut microbiota --- macrophages --- TLR mimicry --- immune epigenetics --- metabolism --- sterile inflammation --- microbiota --- microbiome --- immunotherapy --- adoptive cell transfer (ACT) --- CAR T-cell --- TCR --- TIL --- checkpoint inhibitors --- immuno-oncology --- cancer --- diet --- n/a

Nutrition in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

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ISBN: 9783039214396 / 9783039214402 Year: Pages: 370 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-440-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The purpose of this Special Issue “Nutrition in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)” is to increase knowledge regarding the role of dietary composition and effects in IBD, describing the prevalence of malnutrition in IBD and the effect on clinical outcomes, discussing methods of nutrition risk screening and assessment in IBD, and reviewing mechanisms through which diet and dietary components may affect disease severity. The articles focus on the following areas: Dietary Composition/Therapy Interventions in Ulcerative Colitis and effects on outcomes; Dietary Composition/Therapy Interventions in Crohn’s Disease and effects on outcomes; Nutrition Risk Screening and Assessment in IBD; Mechanisms of Diet in the pathogenesis of IBD.

Keywords

body composition --- obesity --- visceral adipose tissue --- fat --- osteoporosis --- osteopenia --- sarcopenia --- inflammatory bowel disease --- Crohn’s disease --- dietary intake --- malnutrition --- Mediterranean diet --- exclusive enteral nutrition --- children --- IBD --- remission --- mucosal cytokines --- dietary protein level --- colitis --- epithelial repair --- mucosa-adherent microbiota --- intestinal inflammation --- inflammatory bowel disease --- epithelial adherens junctions --- bioactive peptides --- synbiotic --- prebiotic --- probiotic --- IBD --- Bacillus spores --- dietary fibre --- sugar cane fibre --- ulcerative colitis --- colon --- high-sulfur foods --- inflammation --- metagenomics --- microbiota --- sulfur reducing --- inflammatory bowel disease --- Crohn --- ulcerative colitis --- diet --- nutrition --- exclusive enteral nutrition --- intestinal epithelial cells --- inflammation --- probiotics --- Lactobacillus acidophilus --- Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis --- vitamin D --- IBD --- Crohn’s disease --- ulcerative colitis --- supplementation --- deficiency --- Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) --- Mediterranean Diet --- Western-style Diet (WSD) --- Nutritional Approach --- vitamin D --- Crohn’s disease --- ulcerative colitis --- faecal calprotectin --- C-reactive protein --- diet --- inflammatory bowel disease --- microbiota --- intestinal barrier --- nutrients --- immunity --- colitis --- food additive --- diet --- emulsifiers --- high salt diet --- inflammatory bowel diseases --- inflammatory bowel disease --- dietary modification --- exclusive enteral nutrition --- lifestyle modification --- Mediterranean diet --- colorectal cancer --- inflammatory bowel disease --- colorectal cancer --- dysplasia --- berries --- chemoprevention --- Inflammatory Bowel Disease --- micronutrients --- vitamin --- mineral --- deficiency --- inflammatory bowel disease --- dietary habits --- food components --- gut microbiota --- immune homeostasis --- epigenetic changes --- inflammatory bowel disease --- malnutrition --- Mediterranean diet --- older age --- diet --- inflammatory bowel disease --- ulcerative colitis --- inflammatory bowel disease --- Westernisation --- genotypes --- nutrient deficiency --- food intolerance --- FODMAPs --- gluten --- fructose --- lactose --- brassica --- mushrooms --- n/a

The Role of Pregnancy Nutrition in Maternal and Offspring Health

Author:
ISBN: 9783039219964 / 9783039219971 Year: Pages: 320 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-997-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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In pregnancy, maternal nutrition sustains and nourishes the developing child. Imbalances in either the direction of nutritional excess or deficiency can have adverse consequences for child health. In addition, more research now suggests that good pregnancy nutrition influences child health beyond pregnancy and delivery. This includes modifying the risk of child health outcomes as they enter childhood and adulthood through influences on placental development, hormonal pathways, and organ structure and function. Poor pregnancy nutrition may also compromise maternal health during pregnancy, which may have long-term consequences for women’s health. Understanding the biological and social mechanisms operating during pregnancy can help in the design of better clinical and public health interventions. This Special Issue on “The Role of Pregnancy Nutrition in Maternal and Offspring Health” includes etiological and mechanistic studies of pregnancy nutrition with short- and long-term maternal and child health outcomes, including original research, narrative reviews, and systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Together, this body of work provides important insights into the influence of dietary patterns, food groups, and nutrients on pregnancy outcomes, and long-term neurodevelopmental, respiratory, and metabolic health in the children. It also highlights nutritional consequences for specific groups of women, including those with pregnancy complications and eating disorders.

Keywords

Obesity --- chronic kidney disease --- foetal programming --- sirtuin --- choline --- Dlx3 --- placenta --- placental insufficiency --- inflammation --- angiogenesis --- apoptosis --- Iodine --- pregnancy --- birth weight --- Insufficiency --- SGA --- preterm Birth --- nutrition --- diet --- vitamin D --- birthweight --- birth length --- head circumference --- gestational age --- pregnancy outcomes --- vegetarian diets --- vegan diets --- plant-based diets --- nutrition --- pregnancy --- breastfeeding --- human milk --- micronutrients --- fetal development --- fatty fish --- essential fatty acids --- omega-3 --- pregnancy --- birth weight --- foetal growth --- preterm birth --- anorexia nervosa --- bulimia nervosa --- binge eating disorder --- diet --- eating behavior --- eating disorders --- nutrition --- pregnancy --- purging --- asthma --- fortification --- vitamin D --- social experiment --- pregnancy --- lactation --- weaning --- food-related IgG --- food clusters --- non-IgE-mediated food reactions --- maternal nutrition --- Mediterranean diet --- offspring health --- DHA --- gestational diabetes --- preeclampsia --- placental transport --- choline --- pregnancy --- infant nutrition --- brain health --- docosahexaenoic acid --- DHA --- eye function --- ghrelin --- hypothalamic inflammation --- microglia --- nutritional programing --- pregnancy nutrition --- neurodevelopmental disorders --- autism spectrum disorder --- attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity --- developmental origins of health and disease --- systematic review --- meta-analysis --- preterm birth --- preterm labor --- etiology --- nutrition --- DHA --- probiotics --- dietary habits --- maternal nutrition --- gestational diabetes --- food frequency questionnaire --- dietary screening --- lifestyle intervention --- pregnancy --- dietary behaviour --- neonatal outcomes --- birth weight --- large for gestational age (LGA) --- small for gestational age (SGA) --- obesity prevention --- immunomodulators --- maternal nutrition --- pregnancy --- Rhodiola --- Echinacea --- Panax --- Camellia

Cow's Milk and Allergy

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039280285 / 9783039280292 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-029-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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The purpose of this Special Issue “Cow’s Milk and Allergy” is to provide an overview of the association of cow’s milk with allergy. This topic has two quite different faces. On the one hand, we are all aware of the importance of cow’s milk allergy in early life. What is less known is that the consumption of raw, unprocessed milk is associated with a lower incidence of asthma and rhinitis. This Special Issue takes a closer look at all of these aspects of cow’s milk and allergy and focus on the following questions:

Keywords

allergic march --- cow’s milk allergy --- genome-wide association --- polygenic risk score --- food allergy --- cow’s milk --- camel milk --- infant formula --- animal models --- raw milk --- allergy --- asthma --- protection --- cow’s milk allergy --- casein --- cell-mediated reactions --- delayed-type hypersensitivity --- extracellular vesicles --- miRNA-150 --- cow’s milk allergy --- epidemiology --- natural history --- prevalence --- Cow’s milk allergy (CMA), anaphylaxis --- sensitization pattern --- cow’s milk allergens --- CAP-FEIA (Fluorescence Enzyme Immunoassay) --- multiplex dot test --- basophil activation test (BAT), human breast milk --- cow’s milk allergy --- immune system --- dietary intervention --- bioactive peptides --- gut microbiota --- prebiotics --- probiotics --- aggregation --- allergenicity --- ?-lactoglobulin --- CML --- glycation --- sRAGE --- IgE binding --- partial hydrolysate --- cow’s milk protein allergy --- hydrolysate --- infant feeding --- Middle-East --- step-down --- infant allergy --- cow’s milk allergy --- cow’s milk allergens --- diagnosis of cow’s milk allergy --- molecular diagnosis --- treatment of cow’s milk allergy --- prevention of cow’s milk allergy --- alkaline phosphatase --- allergic diseases --- food allergy --- immune regulation --- milk processing --- raw cow’s milk --- milk allergen --- baked milk --- cow’s milk --- allergenicity modulation --- proteomics --- epigenetics --- farming effect --- food allergy --- histone acetylation --- milk processing --- raw milk --- cow’s milk allergy --- milk --- hydrolysate --- asthma --- processing --- tolerance --- allergy --- cow’s milk --- formula --- therapy --- immune cells --- Immunoglubuline E

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