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Bayesian Inference

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ISBN: 9789535135777 9789535135784 Year: Pages: 378 DOI: 10.5772/66264 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Statistics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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The range of Bayesian inference algorithms and their different applications has been greatly expanded since the first implementation of a Kalman filter by Stanley F. Schmidt for the Apollo program. Extended Kalman filters or particle filters are just some examples of these algorithms that have been extensively applied to logistics, medical services, search and rescue operations, or automotive safety, among others. This book takes a look at both theoretical foundations of Bayesian inference and practical implementations in different fields. It is intended as an introductory guide for the application of Bayesian inference in the fields of life sciences, engineering, and economics, as well as a source document of fundamentals for intermediate Bayesian readers.

The Application of Mathematics to Physics and Nonlinear Science

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ISBN: 9783039287260 / 9783039287277 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-727-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Nonlinear science is the science of, among other exotic phenomena, unexpected and unpredictable behavior, catastrophes, complex interactions, and significant perturbations. Ocean and atmosphere dynamics, weather, many bodies in interaction, ultra-high intensity excitations, life, formation of natural patterns, and coupled interactions between components or different scales are only a few examples of systems where nonlinear science is necessary. All outstanding, self-sustained, and stable structures in space and time exist and protrude out of a regular linear background of states mainly because they identify themselves from the rest by being highly localized in range, time, configuration, states, and phase spaces. Guessing how high up you drive toward the top of the mountain by compiling your speed, road slope, and trip duration is a linear model, but predicting the occurrence around a turn of a boulder fallen on the road is a nonlinear phenomenon. In an effort to grasp and understand nonlinear phenomena, scientists have developed several mathematical approaches including inverse scattering theory, Backlund and groups of transformations, bilinear method, and several other detailed technical procedures. In this Special Issue, we introduce a few very recent approaches together with their physical meaning and applications. We present here five important papers on waves, unsteady flows, phases separation, ocean dynamics, nonlinear optic, viral dynamics, and the self-appearance of patterns for spatially extended systems, which are problems that have aroused scientists’ interest for decades, yet still cannot be predicted and have their generating mechanism and stability open to debate. The aim of this Special Issue was to present these most debated and interesting topics from nonlinear science for which, despite the existence of highly developed mathematical tools of investigation, there are still fundamental open questions.

Forest Hydrology and Watershed

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ISBN: 9783039213856 9783039213863 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-386-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Hydrological processes in forested watersheds are influenced by environmental, physiological, and biometric factors such as precipitation, radiation, temperature, species type, leaf area, and extent and structure of forest ecosystems. Over the past two centuries, forest coverage and forest structures have been impacted globally by anthropogenic activities, for example, forest harvesting, and conversion of forested landscapes for plantations and urbanization. In addition, since the industrial revolution, climate change has resulted in profound impacts on forest ecosystems due to higher carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration or CO2 fertilization, warmer temperatures, changes in frequency and intensity of extreme weather events and natural disturbances. As a result, hydrological processes in forested watersheds have been altered by these natural and anthropogenic factors and these changes are expected to accelerate due to future changing climatic conditions.

Entropy Applications in Environmental and Water Engineering

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ISBN: 9783038972228 Year: Pages: 512 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-223-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Engineering --- General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 15:50:41
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Entropy theory has wide applications to a range of problems in the fields of environmental and water engineering, including river hydraulic geometry, fluvial hydraulics, water monitoring network design, river flow forecasting, floods and droughts, river network analysis, infiltration, soil moisture, sediment transport, surface water and groundwater quality modeling, ecosystems modeling, water distribution networks, environmental and water resources management, and parameter estimation. Such applications have used several different entropy formulations, such as Shannon, Tsallis, Reacutenyi Burg, Kolmogorov, Kapur, configurational, and relative entropies, which can be derived in time, space, or frequency domains. More recently, entropy-based concepts have been coupled with other theories, including copula and wavelets, to study various issues associated with environmental and water resources systems. Recent studies indicate the enormous scope and potential of entropy theory in advancing research in the fields of environmental and water engineering, including establishing and explaining physical connections between theory and reality. The objective of this Special Issue is to provide a platform for compiling important recent and current research on the applications of entropy theory in environmental and water engineering. The contributions to this Special Issue have addressed many aspects associated with entropy theory applications and have shown the enormous scope and potential of entropy theory in advancing research in the fields of environmental and water engineering.

Keywords

complexity --- streamflow --- water level --- composite multiscale sample entropy --- trend --- Poyang Lake basin --- four-parameter exponential gamma distribution --- principle of maximum entropy --- precipitation frequency analysis --- methods of moments --- maximum likelihood estimation --- flood frequency analysis --- generalized gamma (GG) distribution --- principle of maximum entropy (POME) --- entropy theory --- principle of maximum entropy (POME) --- GB2 distribution --- flood frequency analysis --- non-point source pollution --- ANN --- entropy weighting method --- data-scarce --- multi-events --- spatio-temporal variability --- soil water content --- entropy --- arid region --- joint entropy --- NDVI --- temperature --- precipitation --- groundwater depth --- Hei River basin --- turbulent flow --- canopy flow --- randomness --- coherent structures --- Shannon entropy --- Kolmogorov complexity --- entropy --- information transfer --- optimization --- radar --- rainfall network --- water resource carrying capacity --- forewarning model --- entropy of information --- fuzzy analytic hierarchy process --- projection pursuit --- accelerating genetic algorithm --- entropy production --- conditional entropy production --- stochastic processes --- scaling --- climacogram --- turbulence --- water resources vulnerability --- connection entropy --- changing environment --- set pair analysis --- Anhui Province --- cross-entropy minimization --- land suitability evaluation --- spatial optimization --- monthly streamflow forecasting --- Burg entropy --- configurational entropy --- entropy spectral analysis time series analysis --- entropy --- water monitoring --- network design --- hydrometric network --- information theory --- entropy applications --- hydrological risk analysis --- maximum entropy-copula method --- uncertainty --- Loess Plateau --- entropy --- water engineering --- Tsallis entropy --- principle of maximum entropy --- Lagrangian function --- probability distribution function --- flux concentration relation --- uncertainty --- information --- informational entropy --- variation of information --- continuous probability distribution functions --- confidence intervals --- precipitation --- variability --- marginal entropy --- crop yield --- Hexi corridor --- flow duration curve --- Shannon entropy --- entropy parameter --- modeling --- spatial and dynamics characteristic --- hydrology --- tropical rainfall --- statistical scaling --- Tsallis entropy --- multiplicative cascades --- Beta-Lognormal model --- rainfall forecast --- cross entropy --- ant colony fuzzy clustering --- combined forecast --- information entropy --- mutual information --- kernel density estimation --- ENSO --- nonlinear relation --- scaling laws --- power laws --- water distribution networks --- robustness --- flow entropy --- entropy theory --- frequency analysis --- hydrometeorological extremes --- Bayesian technique --- rainfall --- entropy ensemble filter --- ensemble model simulation criterion --- EEF method --- bootstrap aggregating --- bagging --- bootstrap neural networks --- El Niño --- ENSO --- neural network forecast --- sea surface temperature --- tropical Pacific --- entropy --- cross elasticity --- mean annual runoff --- water resources --- resilience --- quaternary catchment --- complement --- substitute --- entropy theory --- complex systems --- hydraulics --- hydrology --- water engineering --- environmental engineering

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