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Psychological Responses to Violations of Expectations: Perspectives and Answers from Diverse Fields of Psychology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454457 Year: Pages: 236 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-445-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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From Pavlov's dog expecting food when hearing a bell to stereotypes as expectations about other people’s behaviour, from Bandura’s self-efficacy as expectation for success and failure of one’s own behaviour to the "predictive brain" concept in current perception theories: expectations have been a central construct in different areas of psychological research. In each of these areas, specific concepts, theoretical approaches, and empirical methods have been developed to explain when and why expectations persist and when they do not. Many theories assume that expectations are likely to change in the face of disconfirming evidence. However, sometimes expectations persist even though they are empirically violated, suggesting that they can be “sticky” under certain circumstances. But what are these circumstances? And what are the psychological mechanisms that can explain why and when expectations persist or change after being confronted with expectation-violating evidence?Each contribution of the current book offers insights into individuals’ reactions to violations of expectations. They show that many pieces of the puzzle have been collected in the many sub-displiclines of psychology and that putting them together in an integrative fashion stays a fascinating enterprise.

Visual Mismatch Negativity (vMMN) a Prediction Error Signal in the Visual Modality

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195602 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-560-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Current theories of visual change detection emphasize the importance of conscious attention to detect unexpected changes in the visual environment. However, an increasing body of studies shows that the human brain is capable of detecting even small visual changes, especially if such changes violate non-conscious probabilistic expectations based on repeating experiences. In other words, our brain automatically represents statistical regularities of our visual environmental. Since the discovery of the auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related potential (ERP) component, the majority of research in the field has focused on auditory deviance detection. Such automatic change detection mechanisms operate in the visual modality too, as indicated by the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) brain potential to rare changes. VMMN is typically elicited by stimuli with infrequent (deviant) features embedded in a stream of frequent (standard) stimuli, outside the focus of attention. In this research topic we aim to present vMMN as a prediction error signal. Predictive coding theories account for phenomena such as mismatch negativity and repetition suppression, and place them in a broader context of a general theory of cortical responses. A wide range of vMMN studies has been presented in this Research Topic. Twelve articles address roughly four general sub-themes including attention, language, face processing, and psychiatric disorders. Additionally, four articles focused on particular subjects such as the oblique effect, object formation, and development and time-frequency analysis of vMMN. Furthermore, a review paper presented vMMN in a hierarchical predictive coding framework. Each paper in this Research Topic is a valuable contribution to the field of automatic visual change detection and deepens our understanding of the short term plasticity underlying predictive processes of visual perceptual learning.

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