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Die rechtliche Zulässigkeit von Placebokontrollgruppen in Arzneimittelstudien - Unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Blankoeinwilligung und der Zulässigkeit weiterer Kontrollvarianten

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ISBN: 9783863953218 Year: DOI: 10.17875/gup2017-1041 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-05 11:02:24
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Clinical trials of medicinal products on human subjects are a balancing act between the protection of the study participant and the preservation of his dignity on the one hand and the constant striving for medical progress on the other hand. This applies likewise to the control group as an essential part of every clinical testing of pharmaceuticals without which no drug will receive marketing authorisation in Germany by the competent authorities. Nevertheless, significant gaps in the German legislation concerning this matter still remain as the German legislator has yet to implement any specific rules with regard to the handling and management of the control group in clinical trials. In view of this unsettled legal situation, the author critically analyses the core of the problem areas in this field’s current research practice and creates solutions reflecting the interests of the study participant as well as the practical needs of medical research. Only legal clarity regarding the control group can provide for the safety that is crucial in this field of tension between ethics, medicine and the law.

Une prescription sur mesure

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ISBN: 9782874631887 9782875581655 Year: Language: French
Publisher: Presses universitaires de Louvain
Added to DOAB on : 2017-05-12 11:12:22
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

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Si, en médecine, nos maîtres nous ont appris que l’enfant n’est pas un adulte en miniature, une règle similaire peut s’appliquer à la prescription de traitements multiples à la personne âgée. Pourtant, la polypathologie du quatrième âge place souvent les guidelines en conflit et peut amener le médecin à réduire drastiquement la prise de médications réputées utiles pour éviter un non-sens absolu. Ouvrage collectif, cette troisième monographie de la Chaire de médecine générale de l’UCL suggère ...

Thinking in Action

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Book Series: Hellenic-Serbian Philosophical Dialogue Series ISSN: 2623-3568 / 2623-3576 ISBN: 9786188372900 9786188372917 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 138 DOI: https://doi.org/10.12681/aprlp.16 Language: English
Publisher: NKUA Applied Philosophy Research Lab Press
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-07 14:48:27
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Action can only be spontaneous and impulsive if not guided by contemplation; contemplation, on the other hand, may only be luxurious playfulness if not either purposed - or suitable - to motivate action. This volume seeks to prove what may seem self-evident to common sense, but adhering to common sense is never pointless nor excessive. Next to this, Thinking in Action is the offspring of friendship, respect and commitment between two academic communities, the Hellenic and the Serbian philosophical communities, that admittedly have a lot in common, especially with regard to philosophy, and hopefully as many differences as needed in order to secure a long-lasting and fertile exchange of ideas; it is also the natural-born child of necessity: philosophy is about argumentation, debate and confrontation. Thinking in Action inaugurates Hellenic-Serbian Philosophical Dialogue Series that entertains no hesitation in being as ambitious as any philosophical series could be: it seeks to establish a permanent, wide and rich channel of fruitful philosophical interaction between the two philosophical communities. Having high aspirations is one thing; meeting these aspirations as well as the expectations of the reader is a totally different one. We wish Thinking in Action, the first volume of the Hellenic-Serbian Philosophical Dialogue Series, apart from being the initial step of a long journey, will also be a fascinating one to the reader.

Evidence-Based Medicine - A Paradigm Ready To Be Challenged?

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ISBN: 9783476057037 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-476-05703-7 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Science (General) --- Philosophy --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-07-15 23:59:18
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This open access book aims to clarify the term „evidence-based medicine“ (EBM) from a philosophy of science perspective. The author, Marie-Caroline Schulte discusses the importance of evi-dence in medical research and practice with a focus on the ethical and methodological prob-lems of EBM. The claims that EBM can herald a new theory of epistemology and a Kuhnian paradigm will be refuted. The solution is to describe EBM as a necessary development in medicine to deal with the increasing amount of evidence and medical data without loosing the single patient out of sight. ​

Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health

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ISBN: 9783039286287 / 9783039286294 Year: Pages: 290 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-629-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The year 2019 has been prolific in terms of new evidence regarding the effects of coffee and caffeine consumption on diverse aspects of human functioning. This book collects 20 high-quality manuscripts published in Nutrients that include original investigation or systematic review studies of the effects of caffeine intake on human performance and health. The diversity of the articles published in this Special Issue highlights the extent of the effects of coffee and caffeine on human functioning, while underpinning the positive nature of most of these effects. This book will help with understanding why the natural sources of caffeine are so widely present in the nutrition behaviors of modern society.

Keywords

pharmacokinetics --- energy drink --- exercise --- elite athlete --- performance --- football --- RPE --- DOMS --- sport performance --- supplementation --- ergogenic aids --- consumer --- behavior --- perception --- coffee --- health --- consumption motives --- coffee/caffeine --- systematic review and meta-analysis --- prospective studies --- epidemiology --- cancer prevention --- colorectal cancer --- individual responses --- responders --- exercise performance --- ergogenic aids --- caffeine --- coffee --- tea --- energy drinks --- pregnancy --- newborn --- caffeine --- ergogenic aid --- resistance training --- isokinetic testing --- adrenal gland --- caffeine --- corticosterone --- puberty --- rat --- sex-difference --- caffeine --- energy drinks --- fatigue --- mood state --- exercise --- supplement --- resistance exercise --- speed --- repetition --- n/a --- metabolome --- skeletal muscle --- exercise --- muscle contraction --- ergogenic effect --- bench press --- upper limb --- resistance exercise --- ergogenic substances --- time under tension --- 1RM test --- caffeine --- metabolites --- phenotyping --- CYP450 --- NAT --- xanthine oxidase --- actigraphy --- athletic --- coffee --- ergogenic aid --- supplement --- anaerobic --- caffeine --- CMJ --- ergogenic aids --- exercise --- nutrition --- sport supplement --- Wingate --- electromyography --- efficiency --- sport --- exercise --- expectancy --- belief --- perceptions --- placebo effect --- recovery --- strength --- power --- sprint performance --- menstrual cycle --- fatigue --- placebo --- ergogenic --- EEG–EMG coherence --- n/a --- women --- resistance exercise --- exercise training --- velocity --- ergogenic aid --- muscle function --- n/a

The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health

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ISBN: 9783039218349 9783039218356 Year: Pages: 322 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-835-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:21:22
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Abstract

The purpose of this Special Issue is to provide a thorough and up-to-date presentation of research investigating the impact of coffee and/or caffeine intake on various health outcomes. Areas of interest include, but are not limited to, the following topics: Human clinical trials of coffee or caffeine use in relation to disease or intermediate phenotypes. Epidemiological studies of habitual coffee or caffeine intake in relation to human health, among the general public, as well as, among special populations (i.e., children, pregnant women, diabetics, cancer patients, hypertensives, etc.). Mechanisms of action of nutrients and other bioactive components of coffee/caffeine. Studies integrating genetic or physiological markers of coffee/caffeine intake to investigations of coffee and health.

Keywords

accidental death --- caffeine --- caffeine intoxication --- intoxication --- Suicide --- HIV-HCV co-infection --- liver fibrosis --- coffee --- alcohol consumption --- coffee --- tea --- European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition --- 24-h dietary recall --- whole-blood --- mRNA --- transcriptomics --- gene expression --- coffee --- the Norwegian Women and Cancer Cohort (NOWAC) --- caffeine --- myocardial perfusion --- coronary artery disease --- adenosine --- regadenoson --- dipyridamole --- caffeine intake --- assisted reproduction techniques --- risk factors --- implantation --- clinical pregnancy --- live birth --- epidemiology --- bias --- causation --- coffee --- pregnancy --- coffee --- depression --- cohort study --- Mendelian Randomization --- coffee --- caffeine --- behavior --- causality --- genetic epidemiology --- epidemiological methods --- cardiovascular disease --- coffee consumption --- gene-diet interaction --- longevity --- NADH dehydrogenase --- polymorphism --- serum chloride levels --- CYP1A2 --- ADORA2A --- time trial performance --- caffeine metabolism --- pharmacological ergogenic aid --- polymorphism --- anxiety --- ergogenic --- adenosine receptor --- cytochrome P450 --- caffeine --- pharmacogenomics --- coffee --- caffeine --- chlorogenic acids --- phenolic --- cognition --- cognitive --- mood --- age --- sex --- caffeine --- wine --- chocolate --- aging --- cognition --- adult --- coffee --- hearing --- protection --- tinnitus --- Caffeine --- placebo --- sport --- exercise --- health --- expectancy --- cognitions --- caffeine --- coffee --- systematic review --- pregnancy --- safety --- individual responses --- ergogenic aid --- supplement --- did not respond --- responders --- n/a --- caffeine --- coffee --- tea --- soda --- energy drinks --- mate --- guidelines --- country --- consumption --- population --- public policy --- coffee --- caffeine --- lipids --- biomarkers --- trial --- lysophosphatidylcholine --- lipidomics --- n/a

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