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Remote Sensing Technology Applications in Forestry and REDD+

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ISBN: 9783039284702 9783039284719 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-471-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Advances in close-range and remote sensing technologies are driving innovations in forest resource assessments and monitoring on varying scales. Data acquired with airborne and spaceborne platforms provide high(er) spatial resolution, more frequent coverage, and more spectral information. Recent developments in ground-based sensors have advanced 3D measurements, low-cost permanent systems, and community-based monitoring of forests. The UNFCCC REDD+ mechanism has advanced the remote sensing community and the development of forest geospatial products that can be used by countries for the international reporting and national forest monitoring. However, an urgent need remains to better understand the options and limitations of remote and close-range sensing techniques in the field of forest degradation and forest change. Therefore, we invite scientists working on remote sensing technologies, close-range sensing, and field data to contribute to this Special Issue. Topics of interest include: (1) novel remote sensing applications that can meet the needs of forest resource information and REDD+ MRV, (2) case studies of applying remote sensing data for REDD+ MRV, (3) timeseries algorithms and methodologies for forest resource assessment on different spatial scales varying from the tree to the national level, and (4) novel close-range sensing applications that can support sustainable forestry and REDD+ MRV. We particularly welcome submissions on data fusion.

Keywords

sentinel imagery --- above-ground biomass --- predictive mapping --- machine learning --- geographically weighted regression --- canopy cover (CC) --- spectral --- texture --- digital hemispherical photograph (DHP) --- random forest (RF) --- gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) --- forest inventory --- LiDAR --- tall trees --- overstory trees --- tree mapping --- crown delineation --- aboveground biomass --- Landsat --- random forest --- topography --- human activity --- aboveground biomass estimation --- remote sensing --- crown density --- low-accuracy estimation --- model comparison --- old-growth forest --- multispectral satellite imagery --- random forest --- forest classification --- remote sensing --- forestry --- phenology --- silviculture --- forest growing stock volume (GSV) --- full polarimetric SAR --- subtropical forest --- topographic effects --- environment effects --- geographic information system --- support vector machine --- random forest --- ensemble model --- hazard mapping --- 3D tree modelling --- aboveground biomass estimation --- destructive sampling --- Guyana --- LiDAR --- local tree allometry --- model evaluation --- quantitative structural model --- Pinus massoniana --- specific leaf area --- leaf area --- terrestrial laser scanning --- voxelization --- forest canopy --- REDD+ --- Cameroon --- reference level --- deforestation --- agriculture --- forest baseline --- airborne laser scanning --- terrestrial laser scanning --- remote sensing --- REDD+ --- forestry

Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycling in Forest Soils

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ISBN: 9783038976820 9783038976837 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-683-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The majority of carbon stored in the soils of the world is stored in forests. The refractory nature of some portions of forest soil organic matter also provides the slow, gradual release of organic nitrogen and phosphorus to sustain long term forest productivity. Contemporary and future disturbances, such as climatic warming, deforestation, short rotation sylviculture, the invasion of exotic species, and fire, all place strains on the integrity of this homeostatic system of C, N, and P cycling. On the other hand, the CO2 fertilization effect may partially offset losses of soil organic matter, but many have questioned the ability of N and P stocks to sustain the CO2 fertilization effect.

Keywords

carbon distribution index --- moisture gradient --- soil organic matter fraction --- soil degradation --- soil available nitrogen --- soil available phosphorus --- temperature --- stand density --- charcoal --- forest soil --- carbon mineralization --- microbial activity --- nitrification --- polyphenols --- temperature --- soil microbial communities --- PLFA --- seasons --- nitrogen dynamics --- gross nitrogen transformations --- Daxing’an Mountains --- climatic factors --- soil nutrients --- forest types --- principal component analyses --- soil structure --- soil pH --- Oxisol --- variable-charge soils --- aluminum accumulator --- seasonal trends --- beech forests --- soil enzymes --- organic matter --- multilevel models --- near natural forest management --- Pinus massoniana plantation --- Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation --- soil greenhouse gas flux --- biolability --- tree-DOM --- dissolved organic matter (DOM) --- carbon --- dissolved organic carbon (DOC) --- stemflow --- throughfall --- alpine forest --- ammonia-oxidizing bacteria --- ammonia-oxidizing archaea --- ammonium --- nitrate --- revegetation --- microbial biomass --- chloroform fumigation extraction --- enzyme activities --- stoichiometric homeostasis --- the Three Gorges Reservoir --- Eucalyptus sp. --- wood volume --- second production cycle --- annual increment average --- soil fertility --- nutrient cycling --- Chamaecyparis forest --- humic substances --- 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P NMR) --- P species --- topography --- net primary productivity --- climate zone --- climate --- soil N --- litter N --- climate change --- manuring --- manure pelleting --- northern temperate --- pyrolysis --- information review --- leaf N:P ratio --- P resorption efficiency --- soil P fractions --- P stock --- stand age

Physiological Responses to Abiotic and Biotic Stress in Forest Trees

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039215140 9783039215157 Year: Pages: 294 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-515-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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As sessile organisms, plants have to cope with a multitude of natural and anthropogenic forms of stress in their environment. Due to their longevity, this is of particular significance for trees. As a consequence, trees develop an orchestra of resilience and resistance mechanisms to biotic and abiotic stresses in order to support their growth and development in a constantly changing atmospheric and pedospheric environment. The objective of this Special Issue of Forests is to summarize state-of-art knowledge and report the current progress on the processes that determine the resilience and resistance of trees from different zonobiomes as well as all forms of biotic and abiotic stress from the molecular to the whole tree level.

Keywords

drought --- mid-term --- non-structural carbohydrate --- soluble sugar --- starch --- Pinus massoniana --- salinity --- Carpinus betulus --- morphological indices --- gas exchange --- osmotic adjustment substances --- antioxidant enzyme activity --- ion relationships --- Populus simonii Carr. (poplar) --- intrinsic water-use efficiency --- tree rings --- basal area increment --- long-term drought --- hydrophilic polymers --- Stockosorb --- Luquasorb --- Konjac glucomannan --- photosynthesis --- ion relation --- Fagus sylvatica L. --- Abies alba Mill. --- N nutrition --- mixed stands --- pure stands --- soil N --- water relations --- 24-epiBL application --- salt stress --- ion contents --- chloroplast ultrastructure --- photosynthesis --- Robinia pseudoacacia L. --- elevation gradient --- forest type --- growth --- leaf properties --- Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc. --- Heterobasidion parviporum --- Heterobasidion annosum --- Norway spruce --- disturbance --- water availability --- pathogen --- infection --- Carpinus turczaninowii --- salinity treatments --- ecophysiology --- photosynthetic responses --- organic osmolytes --- ion homeostasis --- antioxidant enzymes --- glutaredoxin --- subcellular localization --- expression --- tapping panel dryness --- defense response --- rubber tree --- Ca2+ signal --- drought stress --- living cell --- Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) --- plasma membrane Ca2+ channels --- signal network --- Aleppo pine --- Greece --- photosynthesis --- water potential --- ?13C --- sap flow --- canopy conductance --- climate --- molecular cloning --- functional analysis --- TCP --- DELLA --- GA-signaling pathway --- Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. --- wood formation --- abiotic stress --- nutrition --- gene regulation --- tree --- bamboo forest --- cold stress --- physiological response --- silicon fertilization --- plant tolerance --- reactive oxygen species --- antioxidant activity --- proline --- Populus euphratica --- salt stress --- salicylic acid --- malondialdehyde --- differentially expressed genes --- n/a

Wood Properties and Processing

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ISBN: 9783039288212 / 9783039288229 Year: Pages: 350 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-822-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Wood-based materials are CO2-neutral, renewable, and considered to be environmentally friendly. The huge variety of wood species and wood-based composites allows a wide scope of creative and esthetic alternatives to materials with higher environmental impacts during production, use and disposal. Quality of wood is influenced by the genetic and environmental factors. One of the emerging uses of wood are building and construction applications. Modern building and construction practices would not be possible without use of wood or wood-based composites. The use of composites enables using wood of lower quality for the production of materials with engineered properties for specific target applications. Even more, the utilization of such reinforcing particles as carbon nanotubes and nanocellulose enables development of a new generation of composites with even better properties. The positive aspect of decomposability of waste wood can turn into the opposite when wood or wood-based materials are exposed to weathering, moisture oscillations, different discolorations, and degrading organisms. Protective measures are therefore unavoidable for many outdoor applications. Resistance of wood against different aging factors is always a combined effect of toxic or inhibiting ingredients on the one hand, and of structural, anatomical, or chemical ways of excluding moisture on the other.

Keywords

artificial weathering --- blue staining fungi --- colour change --- natural weathering --- wood --- marketing --- material preference --- urban housing --- immigrants --- building culture background --- building material --- chemical changes --- colour changes --- infrared spectroscopy --- hardwoods --- roughness --- Douglas-fir --- lumber --- non-destructive testing --- modulus of elasticity (MOE) --- stiffness --- thinning --- silviculture --- wood based composites --- hybrid beams --- bending stiffness --- flexural rigidity --- aluminium reinforcements --- wooden windows --- end-product-based fiber attribute determinates --- longitudinal stress wave velocity --- mixed-effects hierarchical linear models --- predictive performance --- bamboo grid packing --- cooling packing --- cooling tower --- mechanical properties --- fungi --- bamboo --- heat treatment --- wood --- structural changes --- nondestructive testing --- ultrasound --- Euler-Bernoulli --- modulus of elasticity --- neural network --- high frequency drying --- moisture content --- wood --- brittleness --- density --- dynamic strength --- High-Energy Multiple Impact (HEMI)–test --- Resistance to Impact Milling (RIM) --- bamboo grid packing --- cooling packing --- cooling tower --- chemical composition --- elemental composition --- FTIR --- color --- tropical woods --- brown rot --- Coniophora puteana --- colour --- CIEL*a*b* system --- technological and product innovations --- cyclic loading --- laminated wood --- deflection at the limit of proportionality --- deflection at the modulus of rupture --- wood-processing industry performance --- orthotropic --- elastic constants --- green larch --- compression --- three-point bending --- coefficient of wood bendability --- laminated wood --- technological and product innovations --- minimal curve radius --- orthotropic --- tensile modulus --- tensile strength --- moisture content --- relative humidity --- glued lamella --- flexible chair --- weight of a user --- ultimate state --- volume yield --- European hardwoods --- low quality round wood --- strength grading --- glulam --- ultrasonic wave velocity measurement --- nondestructive assessment --- wood mechanical properties --- intra-ring variation --- dynamic modulus of elasticity --- Pinus massoniana Lamb. --- phenol formaldehyde resin --- wood impregnation --- wood properties --- cell-wall mechanics --- ultrasonic speed --- poplar seedlings --- acoustic resonance --- density --- microfibril angle --- root-collar diameter --- machinability --- Eucalyptus --- plantation timber --- fiber-managed hardwoods

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