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Hydrodynamic processes at the water-sediment interface of streambeds

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Book Series: Dissertationsreihe am Institut für Hydromechanik der Universität Karlsruhe / Universität Karlsruhe (TH), Institut für Hydromechanik ISSN: 14394111 ISBN: 9783866442443 Year: Volume: 2008/1 Pages: IV, 153 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000008267 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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Simultaneous 2D pressure and 2D velocity information at the rough water-sediment interface of streambeds were gained by a newly developed measurement setup. In the bed the pressure fluctuations decay exponentially within the first 1-2 equivalent sand roughnesses. Structural findings concerning coherent flow structures are consistent with models originally developed for smooth walls. A significant bed destabilizing flow-pressure pattern was identified for the first time.

Shallow turbulent wake flows: momentum and mass transfer due to large-scale coherent vortical structures

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Book Series: Dissertationsreihe am Institut für Hydromechanik der Universität Karlsruhe (TH) ISSN: 14394111 ISBN: 3937300635 Year: Volume: 2005,2 Pages: XXVI, 398 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000003453 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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Shallow turbulent wake flows are generated by large obstacles - like islands or headlands - introduced to shallow turbulent open-channel flows. Large-scale quasi two-dimensional vortices may shed off from an obstacle, and advect downstream in a vertical shear flow with predominantly small-scale turbulence induced by bottom friction. Experimental, analytical, and numerical techniques are employed in the present study to characterize the mean flow and turbulence properties of shallow wakes; mechanisms of generation and decay of large-scale vortical structures are clarified, as is their influence on momentum and mass transport in shallow wakes; the global and local stability of shallow wakes is analyzed and evidenced from experimental data. Part I of this work covers non-intrusive optical measurement techniques especially adapted to investigate shallow shear flows. Flow velocities and mass concentrations are obtained (i) point-wise with high spatiotemporal resolution using a combinded LDV-LIF system, and (ii) field-wise using near-surface PIV and depth-averaged PCA systems with a coupling by phase-resolved averaging. Improved algorithms for the evaluation of mass concentrations are based on hydro-optical models of the underlying fluorescence and light attenuation processes. Part II addresses the time-mean description of shallow wake flows. The stochastic description of the turbulence fields displays a characteristic spectral distribution both of kinetic energy and of mass variance, which is partially consistent with the theory of unbounded 2D turbulence at large scales, and with the theory of homogeneous 3D turbulence at small scales. An integral wake model including the effect of bottom friction is derived analytically, and is validated by experimental data. The time-mean distributions of flow velocities and of mass concentration allow to identify wake near fields and far fields with specific asymptotic wake developments. Wake stability classes are associated with local stability regions suggested by linear stability analyses. Part III elaborates the structure and dynamics of quasi-periodic wake flows and the significance of large-scale eddies. This involves a structure identification scheme to educe individual vortices, and a phase-resolved averaging procedure to decompose the flow fields into large-scale coherent and small-scale turbulent parts. A Numerical Particle Tracking technique is employed to model the mass transport and to elucidate different diffusion and dispersion effects.

Experimental and Numerical Studies in Biomedical Engineering

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ISBN: 9783039212477 9783039212484 Year: Pages: 130 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-248-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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The term ‘biomedical engineering’ refers to the application of the principles and problem-solving techniques of engineering to biology and medicine. Biomedical engineering is an interdisciplinary branch, as many of the problems health professionals are confronted with have traditionally been of interest to engineers because they involve processes that are fundamental to engineering practice. Biomedical engineers employ common engineering methods to comprehend, modify, or control biological systems, and to design and manufacture devices that can assist in the diagnosis and therapy of human diseases. This Special Issue of Fluids aims to be a forum for scientists and engineers from academia and industry to present and discuss recent developments in the field of biomedical engineering. It contains papers that tackle, both numerically (Computational Fluid Dynamics studies) and experimentally, biomedical engineering problems, with a diverse range of studies focusing on the fundamental understanding of fluid flows in biological systems, modelling studies on complex rheological phenomena and molecular dynamics, design and improvement of lab-on-a-chip devices, modelling of processes inside the human body as well as drug delivery applications. Contributions have focused on problems associated with subjects that include hemodynamical flows, arterial wall shear stress, targeted drug delivery, FSI/CFD and Multiphysics simulations, molecular dynamics modelling and physiology-based biokinetic models.

Optimization of Heat and Mass Exchange

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ISBN: 9783039287420 / 9783039287437 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-743-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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This Special Issue of Processes operates on the basis of a rigorous peer-review with a single-blind assessment and at least two independent reviewers, thereby ensuring a high quality final product. I would like to thank our reviewers, for providing the authors with constructive comments, and Editorial Board, for their professional advice that led to the final decision. I am sure that, in coming years, readers of this Special Issue will find the scientific manuscripts interesting and beneficial to their research.

Continuous Casting

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ISBN: 9783039213214 9783039213221 Year: Pages: 250 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-322-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Continuous casting is an industrial process whereby molten metal is solidified into a semi-finished billet, bloom, or slab for subsequent rolling in finishing mills; it is the most frequently used process to cast not only steel, but also aluminium and copper alloys. Since its widespread introduction for steel in the 1950s, it has evolved to achieve improved yield, quality, productivity and cost efficiency. It allows lower-cost production of metal sections with better quality, due to the inherently lower costs of continuous, standardized production of a product, as well as providing increased control over the process through automation. Nevertheless, challenges remain and new ones appear, as ways are sought to minimize casting defects and to cast alloys that could originally only be cast via other means. This Special Issue of the journal ""Metals"" consists of 14 research articles that cover many aspects of experimental work and theoretical modelling related to the ongoing development of continuous casting processes.

Keywords

slab continuous casting --- hybrid simulation model --- uneven secondary cooling --- numerical simulation --- molten steel flow --- solidification --- inclusion motion --- inclusion entrapment --- billet continuous casting --- swirling flow tundish --- multiphase flow --- heat transfer --- mold --- continuous casting --- numerical simulation --- round bloom --- continuous casting --- final electromagnetic stirring --- electromagnetic field --- polycrystalline model --- pores --- inclusions --- mechanism --- beam blank --- crystal --- propagation --- asymptotic analysis --- numerical simulation --- continuous casting --- air mist spray cooling --- continuous casting --- heat flux --- HTC --- secondary cooling --- thin-slab cast direct-rolling --- austenite grain coarsening --- grain growth control --- liquid core reduction --- secondary cooling --- two-phase pinning --- annular argon blowing --- upper nozzle --- flow behavior --- argon gas distribution --- tundish --- continuous casting --- bulge deformation --- thermomechanical coupling --- segmented roller --- finite element analysis --- steel tundish --- baffle --- flow field --- velocity --- PIV --- multi-source information fusion --- data stream --- continuous casting --- roll gap value --- prediction --- global optimization --- support vector regression --- variational mode decomposition --- empirical mode decomposition --- support vector regression --- mold level --- continuous casting --- magnetohydrodynamics --- fluid flow --- bubbles --- inclusions --- entrapment --- entrainment --- heat transfer --- solidification --- slab mold --- continuous casting --- n/a

Cleaner Combustion

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ISBN: 9783039214778 9783039214785 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-478-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This volume provides unique views of combustion from many technical and international research perspectives.

Selected Papers from the 9th Symposium on Micro-Nano Science and Technology on Micromachines

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ISBN: 9783039216963 9783039216970 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-697-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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This Special Issue presents selected papers from the 8th

Keywords

vibration-induced flow --- micro-pillar --- numerical analysis --- micro-PIV --- acoustofluidics --- microscale thermophoresis --- multiphase flow --- microfluidic channels --- nano/microparticle separation --- micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) technologies --- magneto-impedance sensor --- thin-film --- high frequency --- logarithmic amplifier --- nondestructive inspection --- microfluidics --- biofabrication --- adipose tissue --- lipolysis --- tactile display --- thermal tactile display --- thermal sensation --- thermal conductivity --- liquid metal --- flexible device --- stretchable electronic substrate --- kirigami structure --- mechanical metamaterials --- surface mounting --- flexible electronic device --- contact resistance --- contact pressure --- myoblast --- skeletal muscle --- core-shell hydrogel fiber --- cyclic stretch --- engineered muscle --- laser direct writing --- femtosecond laser --- glyoxylic acid Cu complex --- reduction --- Cu micropattern --- near-infrared --- spectroscopy --- surface plasmon resonance --- Schottky barrier --- grating --- Si --- connector --- artificial blood vessel --- medical device --- blood coagulation --- implant --- artificial kidney --- biocompatible --- 4D printing --- 3D printing --- stimuli-responsive hydrogel --- electrical impedance measurement --- three-dimensional cell culture --- adipocyte --- lipid droplet --- 3T3-L1 --- functional surface --- condensation --- molecular dynamics --- wettability --- nanoscale structure --- n/a

Modeling, Design and Optimization of Multiphase Systems in Minerals Processing

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ISBN: 9783039284009 9783039284016 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-401-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Mineral processing deals with complex particle systems with two-, three- and more phases. The modeling and understanding of these systems are a challenge for research groups and a need for the industrial sector. This Special Issue aims to present new advances, methodologies, applications, and case studies of computer-aided analysis applied to multiphase systems in mineral processing. This includes aspects such as modeling, design, operation, optimization, uncertainty analysis, among other topics. The special issue contains a review article and eleven articles that cover different methodologies of modeling, design, optimization, and analysis in problems of adsorption, leaching, flotation, and magnetic separation, among others. Consequently, the topics covered are of interest to readers from academia and industry.

Progress in Combustion Diagnostics, Science and Technology

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039285105 9783039285112 Year: Pages: 336 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-511-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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The role that combustion plays in the world’s energy systems will continue to evolve with the changes in technological demands. For example, the challenges that we face today are more focused on the conservation of energy and addressing environmental concerns, which together necessitate cleaner and more efficient combustion processes using a range of fuel sources. This book includes contributions to highlight the recent progress in theory and experiments, development, and demonstration of technologies and systems involving combustion processes, for the production, storage, use, and conservation of energy.

Keywords

steam ejector --- wet steam model --- computational fluid dynamics --- condensation effect --- fire suppression system --- acoustic --- frequency --- NOx emission index --- flame length --- global residence time --- flow-field --- flame-front --- gasoline engine --- flame propagation --- turbulence --- PPCI diesel engine --- pilot injection --- combustion noise --- stationary wavelet packet transform --- stationary wavelet transform --- CO2 emission --- gasoline vehicles --- electric vehicles --- driving cycles --- vehicle dynamic model --- High speed PIV --- flame propagation --- planer laser tomography --- micro-scale combustion --- diffusion flames --- micro power generation --- numerical investigations --- fire whirl --- computational fluid dynamics --- eddy-generation mechanism --- combustion modelling --- detailed chemistry --- large eddy simulation --- combustion waste heat --- experiment --- steam ejector --- shock-mixing layer --- flow structure --- operating parameter --- combustion waste heat --- steam ejector --- shock wave --- entrainment ratio --- pumping performance --- critical back pressure --- hot jet detonation initiation technique --- flame acceleration --- detonation combustion --- vortex --- ignition position --- hydrogen --- internal combustion engine --- compression ignition --- dual-fuel engine --- direct injection --- high pressure gas jet --- jet penetration --- fuel injector --- CI engine --- biofuel --- fuel combustion --- combustion --- alternative fuel --- canola oil (Co) --- diesel engine --- common rail --- diesel fuel (Df) --- n-hexane --- injection --- tunable diode laser absorption tomography --- exhaust gas --- temperature --- similarity analysis --- Mahalanobis distance --- root mean square error --- fire whirl --- computational fluid dynamics --- eddy-generation mechanism --- combustion modelling --- detailed chemistry --- large eddy simulation --- engine valve systems --- continuously variable valve systems --- engine valve system control --- combustion optimization

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