Search results: Found 2

Listing 1 - 2 of 2
Sort by
Regulation and targeting of enzymes mediating Parkinson's disease pathogenesis: focus on Parkinson's disease Kinases, GTPases and ATPases

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193998 Year: Pages: 163 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-399-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Understanding the molecular pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a priority in biomedical research and a pre-requisite to improve early disease diagnosis and ultimately to developing disease-modifying strategies. In the past decade and a half, geneticists have identified several genes that are involved in the molecular pathogenesis of PD. They not only identified gene variants segregating with familial forms of PD but also genetic risk factors of sporadic PD via genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Understanding how PD genes and their gene products function holds the promise of unraveling key PD pathogenic processes. Therefore the precise cellular role of PD proteins is currently the subject of intense investigation.Interestingly, a number of PD proteins have enzymatic functions, including kinase, GTPase or ATPase functions. In the context of understanding disease pathogenesis or developing disease-modifying therapies, enzymes possess several useful features. Firstly, enzymes are often key elements of cellular signaling networks, acting as on-off switches to determine signaling intensity. For instance, kinases mediate phosphorylation events, which activate or inactivate their substrates, while GTPases modulate activity of their effector proteins via direct interaction in a GDP/GTP dependent manner. ATPases also control cellular processes through their involvement in cellular energy production and/or in transmembrane transport. Secondly, enzymes are attractive targets for therapeutics development. This is exemplified by the growing number of kinase inhibitors approved for clinical use, while compounds modulating GTPases or ATPases have also been proposed as potential therapeutics. Finally, as elements in cellular signaling networks, enzymes are not generally constitutively active but subject to further regulation through additional signaling components. Knowledge of how PD kinases, GTPases and ATPases are activated or inactivated can aid in understanding how PD signaling networks are deregulated in disease and point to new possibilities in targeting pathological signaling processes. The objective of this research topic is to provide an overview of current knowledge on the regulation of cellular signaling networks of PD kinases, GTPases and ATPases. Both upstream and downstream signaling events will be covered, with a focus on molecular events that can readily be monitored (relevance as disease biomarkers) and have a potential to be modulated (relevance as potential therapeutic target).

Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Aging and Diseases of Aging

Author:
ISBN: 9783039213276 9783039213283 Year: Pages: 270 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-328-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This collection of review articles authored by international experts pulls together current information about the role of mitochondria in aging and diseases of aging. Mitochondria are vitally important cellular organelles and undergo their own aging process becoming less efficient in aged animals including humans. These changes have wide-ranging significance contributing to immune dysfunction (autoimmunity and immune deficiency), inflammation, delayed healing, skin and retinal damage, cancer and most of the degenerative diseases of aging. Mitochondrial aging predisposes to drug toxicity in the geriatric population and to many of the features of normal aging. The research detailed in this book summarizes current understanding of the role of mitochondria in the complex molecular changes of aging, moving on to specific diseases of aging. Mitochondrial dysfunction is an important target for development of treatments for aging and disease. The last article details how exercise is a treatment and combats many features of the aging process.

Keywords

aging --- mitochondria --- inflammation --- innate immunity --- adaptive immunity --- immunosenescence --- cell danger response --- healing cycle --- mitochondria --- purinergic signaling --- metabokines --- sphingolipids --- integrated cell stress response --- de-emergence --- crabtree effect --- pasteur effect --- coenzyme Q10 --- aging --- age-related diseases --- mitochondrial dysfunction --- mitochondria --- skin --- ageing --- reactive oxygen species --- photoageing --- 25(OH)D --- 1,25(OH)2D --- aging --- cytokines --- inflammation --- morbidity and mortality --- prevention --- reactive oxygen species --- ultraviolet --- aging --- mitochondria --- retina --- optic nerve --- diabetic retinopathy --- age-related macular degeneration --- glaucoma --- drug-induced mitochondrial toxicity --- polypharmacy --- aging --- mitochondrial dysfunction --- insulin resistance --- type 2 diabetes --- mitochondrial transfer --- exosomes --- mitochondrial --- genetic mutations --- cardiovascular disease --- heart failure --- cardiomyopathy --- mitochondria --- cancer --- nucleotide metabolism --- DNA damage --- NAD+ --- mitochondria --- ALS --- axonal transport --- mitophagy --- SOD1 --- Miro1 --- PINK1 --- Parkin --- multiple sclerosis --- mitochondria --- neuroinflammation --- neurodegeneration --- Parkinson’s disease --- mitochondria --- ageing --- neurodegenerative disease --- Alzheimer’s disease --- eIF2? --- metabolism --- mitochondria --- proteostasis --- stress response --- aging --- exercise --- mitochondria --- aerobic --- ROS --- inflammation --- senescence --- lysosome --- autophagy --- mitophagy --- n/a

Listing 1 - 2 of 2
Sort by
Narrow your search