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Siloxane-Based Polymers

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ISBN: 9783038971252 9783038971269 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-126-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This book, a collection of 12 original contributions and 4 reviews, provides a selection of the most recent advances in the preparation, characterization, and applications of polymeric nanocomposites comprising nanoparticles. The concept of nanoparticle-reinforced polymers came about three decades ago, following the outstanding discovery of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. One of the main ideas behind this approach is to improve the matrix mechanical performance. The nanoparticles exhibit higher specific surface area, surface energy, and density compared to microparticles and, hence, lower nanofiller concentrations are needed to attain properties comparable to, or even better than, those obtained by conventional microfiller loadings, which facilitates processing and minimizes the increase in composite weight. The addition of nanoparticles into different polymer matrices opens up an important research area in the field of composite materials. Moreover, many different types of inorganic nanoparticles, such as quantum dots, metal oxides, and ceramic and metallic nanoparticles, have been incorporated into polymers for their application in a wide range of fields, ranging from medicine to photovoltaics, packaging, and structural applications.

Keywords

fabrication --- multielectrode array (MEA) --- PDMS --- PDMS etching --- plateau-shaped electrode --- recessed electrode --- spinal cord signal recording --- underexposure --- organosilane --- quartz microcrystal --- encapsulant --- refractive index --- thermal conductivity --- poly(dimethylsiloxanes) --- surface modification --- nanosilica --- diethyl carbonate --- carbon content --- morphology --- coatings --- fillers --- hybrid hydrogel --- MAPOSS --- mechanical properties --- swelling --- drug release --- dental resin --- methacryl POSS --- shrinkage --- hardness --- scratch resistance --- ceramizable silicone rubber --- borate --- halloysite --- composite --- ceramizable mechanism --- polysiloxanes --- mortar --- basalt fibre --- roughness --- surface free energy --- poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) --- hydrophilic --- non-releasable --- polydimethylsiloxane --- coatings --- cross-linking --- surface --- amphiphilic --- anti-bioadhesion --- hyperbranched poly(methylhydrosiloxanes) --- hydrolytic polycondensation --- 29Si-NMR --- topology of polysiloxane chains --- polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes --- high molecular weight --- nanoparticles --- PDMS --- sugar templating process --- 3D porous network --- thermal stability --- TG-FTIR --- X-ray (Micro-CT) microtomography --- sol-gel --- hybrids --- chlorogenic acid --- bioactivity --- FTIR --- TG --- polysiloxanes --- theranostics --- drug delivery --- nanomedicine --- PDMS --- silicon --- ultraviolet (UV) curable coatings --- low surface energy materials --- fluorinated siloxane resin

Soft Material-Enabled Electronics for Medicine, Healthcare, and Human-Machine Interfaces

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ISBN: 9783039282821 9783039282838 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-283-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Soft material-enabled electronics offer distinct advantage, over conventional rigid and bulky devices, for numerous wearable and implantable applications. Soft materials allow for seamless integration with skin and tissues due to enhanced mechanical flexibility and stretchability. Wearable devices, such as sensors, offer continuous, real-time monitoring of biosignals and movements, which can be applied in rehabilitation and diagnostics, among other applications. Soft implantable electronics offer similar functionalities, but with improved compatibility with human tissues. Biodegradable soft implantable electronics are also being developed for transient monitoring, such as in the weeks following surgery. To further advance soft electronics, materials, integration strategies, and fabrication techniques are being developed. This paper reviews recent progress in these areas, toward the development of soft material-enabled electronics for medicine, healthcare, and human-machine interfaces.

Keywords

soft materials --- flexible hybrid electronics --- wearable electronics --- stretchable electronics --- medicine --- healthcare --- human-machine interfaces --- point-of-care testing --- soft material-based channel --- PDMS optical filter --- smartphone-based biosensor --- chromogenic biochemical assay --- naked-eye detection --- implantable materials --- low-profile bioelectronics --- micro/nanofabrication --- medical devices --- biodegradable materials --- miniaturization --- bioresorbable electronics --- printing electronics techniques --- conductive inks --- flexible electronics --- carbon-based nano-materials --- bio-integrated electronics --- hardening sponge --- MR sponge --- 6 degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) MR haptic master --- RMIS (robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery) --- implantable devices --- optical waveguides --- optical fibers --- biocompatible --- biodegradable --- electroactive hydrogel --- polyvinyl alcohol --- cellulose nanocrystals --- freeze–thaw method --- actuation --- biodegradable electronics --- transient electronics --- soft biomedical electronics --- biodegradable materials --- silver nanowire --- graphene oxide --- polymer-dispersed liquid crystal --- smart window --- hybrid transparent conductive electrode --- conductive textile --- capacitive pressure sensor --- gait --- monitoring --- phase coordination index --- stretchable --- polydimethylsiloxane --- liquid-metal --- capacitor --- dysphagia --- swallowing --- tongue --- nitinol --- superelastic --- prosthesis --- soft materials --- wearable electronics --- implantable electronics --- biodegradable --- medical devices --- diagnostics --- health monitoring --- human-machine interfaces

Microscale Surface Tension and Its Applications

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039215645 9783039215652 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-565-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Building on advances in miniaturization and soft matter, surface tension effects are a major key to the development of soft/fluidic microrobotics. Benefiting from scaling laws, surface tension and capillary effects can enable sensing, actuation, adhesion, confinement, compliance, and other structural and functional properties necessary in micro- and nanosystems. Various applications are under development: microfluidic and lab-on-chip devices, soft gripping and manipulation of particles, colloidal and interfacial assemblies, fluidic/droplet mechatronics. The capillary action is ubiquitous in drops, bubbles and menisci, opening a broad spectrum of technological solutions and scientific investigations. Identified grand challenges to the establishment of fluidic microrobotics include mastering the dynamics of capillary effects, controlling the hysteresis arising from wetting and evaporation, improving the dispensing and handling of tiny droplets, and developing a mechatronic approach for the control and programming of surface tension effects. In this Special Issue of Micromachines, we invite contributions covering all aspects of microscale engineering relying on surface tension. Particularly, we welcome contributions on fundamentals or applications related to:Drop-botics: fluidic or surface tension-based micro/nanorobotics: capillary manipulation, gripping, and actuation, sensing, folding, propulsion and bio-inspired solutions; Control of surface tension effects: surface tension gradients, active surfactants, thermocapillarity, electrowetting, elastocapillarity; Handling of droplets, bubbles and liquid bridges: dispensing, confinement, displacement, stretching, rupture, evaporation; Capillary forces: modelling, measurement, simulation; Interfacial engineering: smart liquids, surface treatments; Interfacial fluidic and capillary assembly of colloids and devices; Biological applications of surface tension, including lab-on-chip and organ-on-chip systems. We expect novel as well as review contributions on all aspects of surface tension-based micro/nanoengineering. In line with Micromachines' policy, we also invite research proposals that introduce ideas for new applications, devices, or technologies.

Keywords

mist capillary self-alignment --- laser die transfer --- hydrophilic/superhydrophobic patterned surfaces --- microasssembly --- droplet transport --- microfluidics --- vibrations --- contact line oscillation --- asymmetric surfaces --- anisotropic ratchet conveyor --- surface tension --- capillary --- bearing --- wetting --- computational fluid dynamics --- droplet manipulation --- lab-on-a-chip --- microfluidics --- non-invasive control --- photochemical reaction --- photoresponsible surfactant --- surface tension --- two-phase flow --- wettability --- electrowetting --- actuation --- capillary pressure --- lab-on-a-chip --- Nasturtium leaf --- smart superhydrophobic surface --- hot drop --- condensation --- microtexture melting --- self-lubricating slippery surface --- wettability gradient --- electrosurgical scalpels --- anti-sticking --- soft tissue --- continuous-flow reactor --- mixing --- solutal Marangoni effect --- relaxation oscillations --- super-hydrophobic --- durable --- adhesion --- corrosive resistance --- droplet --- vibrations --- transport --- microfluidics --- self-cleaning surface --- superhydrophobic --- superhydrophilic --- superomniphobic --- microfluidics --- electrodynamic screen --- gecko setae --- micropipette-technique --- air-water surface --- oil-water interface --- soluble surfactant --- insoluble lipids --- “black lipid films” --- “droplet-interface-bilayers” --- equilibrium --- dynamic --- adsorption --- gas-microbubbles --- oil-microdroplets --- lung-surfactants --- nanoprecipitation --- microfluidics --- capillary gripper --- pick and place --- micromanufacturing --- two-photon polymerization --- stereolithography --- polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) replication --- rigid gas permeable contact lenses --- wettability --- hydrophilic --- hydrophobic --- 355 nm UV laser --- surface treatment --- microstructure --- contact angle --- droplets --- liquid bridge --- microfabrication --- micromanipulation --- pick-and-place --- soft robotics --- surface tension --- wetting

Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructured Thin Films

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ISBN: 9783039284542 9783039284559 Year: Pages: 276 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-455-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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The Special Issue “Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructured Thin Films” highlights the recent progress in thin film synthesis/modification and characterization. New methods are reviewed for the synthesis and/or modification of thin films based on laser, magnetron, chemical, and other techniques. The obtained thin nanostructures are characterized by complex and complementary techniques. We think that most of proposed methods can be directly applied in production, but some others still need further elaboration for long-term prospective applications in lasers, optics, materials, electronics, informatics, telecommunications, biology, medicine, and probably many other domains. The Guest Editor and the MDPI staff are therefore pleased to offer this Special Issue to interested readers, including graduate and PhD students as well as postdoctoral researchers, but also to the entire community interested in the field of nanomaterials. We share the conviction that this can serve as a useful tool for updating the literature, but also to aid in the conception of new production and/or research programs. There is plenty of room for further dedicated R&D advances based on new instruments and materials under development.

Keywords

AlGaN --- nanopatterned sapphire substrate --- hydride vapor phase epitaxy --- stress --- transmission electron microscopy --- copper nanowires --- CuNWs --- degradation --- encapsulation --- PDMS --- PMMA --- solution-based --- transparent electrode --- photonic crystal fiber --- demultiplexer --- dense wavelength division multiplexing --- lithium niobate --- waveguide --- photonic integrated circuit --- propagation loss --- optical lithography --- chemo-mechanical polishing --- gold thin film --- nonlinear absorption --- nonlinear refraction --- transient absorption --- nanoparticles --- high-order harmonics --- electroluminescence --- nanolaminate --- Al2O3 --- Tm2O3 --- atomic layer deposition --- germanium --- DLC --- doped biomaterials --- pulsed laser deposition --- reactive oxygen species --- apoptosis --- cytotoxicity --- titanium film --- interlayer --- cohesion --- residual stress --- nano-indenter --- nanocrystal --- CdTe --- Cu-doped --- ZnTe --- solar cells --- solution processed --- pulsed laser deposition --- chalcogenide thin films --- Raman spectroscopy --- spectroscopic ellipsometry --- noble metal nanoparticles --- pulsed laser ablation --- surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy --- antiepileptic drugs --- Zn2+ substituted Coll-CaPs biomimetic layers --- MAPLE --- spin coating --- dye-sensitized solar cells --- photovoltaic conversion efficiency --- TiO2 thin films --- pulsed laser deposition --- DLC bio-functionality --- silicon doping --- diffusion barrier --- biocompatibility --- proliferation improvement --- endothelial cells --- ZnO nanofilms --- SHG --- Ga doping --- polarization angle --- Cu2MgxZn1?xSnS4 --- thin films --- photoelectric performance --- sol–gel --- sulfuration treatment --- solar cell --- nanomaterial --- zinc oxide --- barium titanate --- composite --- ethylene vinyl acetate --- elastic modulus --- toughness --- flexural rigidity --- radiopacity --- piezoelectricity --- laser surface texturing --- laser-induced periodic surface structures --- LIPSS --- silicon --- PTFE --- friction --- n/a

Organs-on-chips

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039289172 / 9783039289189 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-918-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Recent advances in microsystems technology and cell culture techniques have led to the development of organ-on-chip microdevices that produce tissue-level functionality, not possible with conventional culture models, by recapitulating natural tissue architecture and microenvironmental cues within microfluidic devices.

Keywords

microfluidics --- vascularization --- organ-on-a-chip --- vascularized tumor model --- tissue engineering --- microfluidic device --- cell culture --- organ-on-chips --- lung epithelial cell --- surfactant protein --- angiogenesis --- shear stress --- biomechanics --- vessel branching --- beating force --- bio-mechanical property --- cardiac 3D tissue --- human induced pluripotent Stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CM) --- tissue engineering --- vacuum chuck --- barrier permeability --- epithelial–endothelial interface --- paracellular/transcellular transport --- organ-on-chip --- MEMS --- silicon --- PDMS --- membranes --- cell --- strain --- stress --- lattice light-sheet microscopy --- 3D cell culture system --- functional neuron imaging --- 3D cell culture --- neuronal cells --- SH-SY5Y cells --- image-based screening --- nanogrooves --- neuronal cell networks --- neuronal guidance --- drug metabolism --- biomimetic oxidation --- microfluidics --- organ-on-a-chip --- liver-on-a-chip --- liver-on-a-chip --- drug hepatotoxicity --- drug metabolism --- organoid --- 3D cell culture --- spheroid array --- high-throughput screening --- drug efficacy --- organ-on-a-chip (OOC) --- microfluidic device --- mechanical cue --- shear flow --- compression --- stretch --- strain --- syringe pump --- integrated pump --- passive delivery --- organs-on-chips --- microfluidics --- drug absorption --- fluoroelastomer --- ischemia/reperfusion injury --- thrombolysis --- organ-on-a-chip --- endothelial cell activation --- microfluidics --- microfabrication --- organ-on-a-chip --- trans-epithelial electrical resistance --- multi-culture --- n/a

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