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DNA Polymerases in Biotechnology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194551 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-455-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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DNA polymerases are core tools for molecular biology including PCR, whole genome amplification, DNA sequencing and genotyping. Research has focused on discovery of novel DNA polymerases, characterization of DNA polymerase biochemistry and development of new replication assays. These studies have accelerated DNA polymerase engineering for biotechnology. For example, DNA polymerases have been engineered for increased speed and fidelity in PCR while lowering amplification sequence bias. Inhibitor resistant DNA polymerase variants enable PCR directly from tissue (i.e. blood). Design of DNA polymerases that efficiently incorporate modified nucleotide have been critical for development of next generation DNA sequencing, synthetic biology and other labeling and detection technologies. The Frontiers in Microbiology Research Topic on DNA polymerases in Biotechnology aims to capture current research on DNA polymerases and their use in emerging technologies.

Application of Molecular Methods and Raman Microscopy

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9781911529538 9781911529521 Year: Pages: 219 DOI: 10.5334/bbj Language: English
Publisher: Ubiquity Press
Subject: Chemical Technology --- Botany --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-15 11:21:03
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"This book has been prepared with the aim to present the application of these two state-of-the art technologies in agricultural sciences and food technology, and to explain the protocols for analyses of different plant, animal, microbiological and food samples as well as for different biotechnology procedures.&#xD;Selected methods and protocols which are used in plant stress physiology, weed science, fruit breeding research, microbial ecology, plant virus and fungus diagnostics, phytobacteriology, fishery, food biochemistry, food materials and food technology are described. Special adaptation of certain protocols is required for application in each of these sciences, for every type of GMO organism, food technology raw material, and food technology product, as well as for every type of bacteria, virus, fungus or fungus-like organism, for each type of raw material in terms of plant host species, plant organs, year period and conditions in the laboratory.&#xD;Application of molecular methods, primarily qPCR, and Raman microscopy/ spectroscopy in agricultural and food sciences provides substantial opportunity for increased production efficiency, food safety, better product quality and improvement of plant and animal health.&#xD;This book is aimed for students, scientists and professionals working in the field of agriculture and food technology."&#xD;

Fungal Infections in Immunocompromised Hosts

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038977162 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-717-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Microbiology --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Fungal Infections in Immunocompromised Hosts that was published in JoF

Keywords

Candida auris --- Aspergillus fumigatus --- antifungal resistance --- multidrug resistance --- mechanisms of antifungal resistance --- liver disease --- hepatic impairment --- invasive fungal infection --- antifungal agent --- antifungal drug --- toxicity --- Immunotherapy --- invasive aspergillosis --- Aspergillus fumigatus --- fungal infections --- innate immunity --- adaptive immunity --- cell therapy --- cytokine therapy --- taxonomy --- fungal nomenclature --- phylogenetics --- species complex --- invasive fungal infections --- mycoses --- immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome --- fungal immunity --- prognostic risk model --- prediction models --- risk score --- invasive mold disease --- hematological malignancy --- risk assessment --- antifungal stewardship --- paracoccidioidomycosis --- HIV --- cancer --- lymphoma --- kidney transplant --- TNF inhibitors --- literature review --- MALDI-ToF MS --- yeast --- fungus --- AIDS --- IRIS --- cat-transmitted sporotrichosis --- immunocompromised hosts --- mycoses of implantation --- sporotrichosis --- Sporothrix brasiliensis --- Sporothrix schenckii --- subcutaneous mycoses --- invasive fungal infection --- non-culture-based diagnostics --- aspergillosis --- candidiasis --- Aspergillus PCR --- galactomannan --- lateral flow --- beta-d-glucan --- T2 Candida --- candidemia --- Candida meningoencephalitis --- (1?3)-?-d-glucan --- T2Candida --- PCR --- liposomal amphotericin B --- micafungin --- anidulafungin --- Aspergillus --- anti-fungal agents --- hematological malignancies

Antimicrobial Resistance in Environmental Waters

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038976080 9783038976097 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-609-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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This Special Issue on Antimicrobial Resistance in Environmental Waters features 11 articles on the monitoring and surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in natural aquatic systems (i.e., reservoirs, rivers), and effluent discharge from water treatment plants to assess the effectiveness of AMR removal and resulting loads in treated waters.&nbsp;Some of the key elements of AMR studies presented in this Special Issue highlight the underlying drivers of AMR contamination in the environment and the evaluation of the hazard imposed on aquatic organisms in receiving environments through ecological risk assessments. As described in this Issue, screening antimicrobial peptide (AMP) libraries for biofilm disruption and antimicrobial candidates are promising avenues for the development of new treatment options to eradicate resistance.

One Health and Zoonoses

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ISBN: 9783039212958 / 9783039212965 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-296-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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The One Health concept recognizes that the health of humans, animals, and their ecosystems are interconnected, and that a coordinated, collaborative, multidisciplinary, and cross-sectoral approach is necessary to fully understand and respond to potential or existing risks that originate at the animal–human–ecosystems interfaces. Thus, the One Health concept represents a holistic vision for addressing some of the complex challenges that threaten human and animal health, food safety, and the environments in which diseases flourish. There are many examples showing how the health of humans is related to the health of animals and the environment. Diseases shared between humans and animals are zoonoses. Some zoonoses have been known for many years, whereas others have emerged suddenly and unexpectedly. Over 70% of all new emerging diseases over the past few decades have been zoonoses that have emerged from wildlife, most often from bats, rodents, or birds. Examples of zoonoses are many and varied, ranging from rabies to bovine tuberculosis, and from Japanese encephalitis to SARS. Clearly, a One Health approach is essential for understanding their ecology, and for outbreak response and the development of control strategies. However, the One Health concept and approach is much broader than zoonoses; it extends to including antimicrobial resistance, food safety, and environmental health and, consequently, impacts on global health security, economic wellbeing, and international trade. It is this breadth of One Health that connects the papers in this Special Issue.

Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038977827 9783038977834 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-783-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several fungal species. They can contaminate human food and animal feed, and have been a threat for thousands of years. The gastrointestinal tract is the first target when ingesting mycotoxin-contaminated food or feed. As unlikely as it sounds, the investigations concerning the effects of mycotoxins on the intestine are still in their early stages. This book gathers the most recent advances related to the characterization of the intestinal toxicity of mycotoxins. Substantial data assembled on the damage caused to a number of histological structures and functions of the intestine remove any remaining doubt about this organ being a primary target for the toxicity of mycotoxins. An interesting overview of the detrimental effects of mycotoxins on the gut-hosted microbiota&mdash;now regarded as a fully-fledged organ associated with the gut&mdash;is also given. Finally, outstanding contributions in this book address questions relating to the suitability of current regulations to protect against alterations of the intestine, and to the efficacy assessment of new detoxification strategies using the intestinal toxicity of mycotoxins as a relevant endpoint.

Keywords

mice --- aflatoxin B1 --- intestinal bacterial flora --- response --- Clostridium sp. WJ06 --- deoxynivalenol --- pig --- intestinal morphology --- microbial diversity --- aflatoxin M1 --- ochratoxin A --- intestinal epithelial cells --- tight junction --- permeability --- ileum --- jejunum --- deoxynivalenol --- piglet --- contaminated feed --- tight junction --- aflatoxin B1 --- small intestine --- histopathological lesions --- ultrastructural changes --- toll-like receptors --- T-2 toxin --- enteric nervous system --- pig --- vasoactive intestinal polypeptide --- mycotoxins --- zearalenone --- deoxynivalenol --- histology --- ultrastructure --- large intestine --- pig --- Claviceps --- liver --- digestive tract --- mycotoxin --- sclerotia --- ergot alkaloids --- toxicity --- deoxynivalenol --- Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii CNCM I-1079 --- intestine --- transcriptome --- inflammation --- oxidative stress --- lipid metabolism --- fumonisin --- microbiota --- pigs --- MiSeq 16S rDNA sequencing --- intestinal microbiota --- hydrogen-rich water --- lactulose --- Fusarium mycotoxins --- piglets --- functional oligosaccharides --- mycotoxins --- swine --- explant technique --- intestinal morphology --- goblet cells --- deoxynivalenol --- zearalenone --- pig --- colon microbiota --- Lactobacillus --- detoxification --- zearalenone --- doses --- caecal water --- genotoxicity --- pre-pubertal gilts --- atlantic salmon --- deoxynivalenol --- feed --- intestine --- PCR --- proliferating cell nuclear antigen --- suppressor of cytokine signaling --- tight junctions --- Zearalenone --- N-acetylcysteine --- SIEC02 cells --- Mitochondrial apoptosis --- n/a

Skin-Related Neglected Tropical Diseases (Skin-NTDs)—A New Challenge

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039212538 / 9783039212545 Year: Pages: 218 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-254-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This Special Issue explores the range of clinical manifestations and epidemiology of both skin NTDs and common skin disease in endemic regions, the use of common diagnostic and management pathways, the different technologies that play a role in diagnosis and training, the role of patient involvement at a community level, as well as the assessment of the results of different initiatives in the field.

Keywords

Mycobacterium ulcerans --- animal reservoir --- transmission --- scabies --- Cushing syndrome --- iatrogenic --- topical corticosteroids --- teledermatology --- eHealth --- mHealth --- long range diagnosis --- dermatology --- telepathology --- technology --- skin disease --- podoconiosis --- lymphedema --- neglected tropical diseases --- NTDs --- mental health --- community engagement --- patient involvement --- stigma --- teledermatology --- Africa --- primary health care --- skin diseases --- tele-expertise --- yaws --- Treponema pallidum --- onchodermatitis --- onchocercal skin disease --- onchocerciasis --- ivermectin --- mycetoma --- clinical presentation --- review --- scabies --- neglected tropical diseases --- impetigo --- mass drug administration --- ivermectin --- integration --- neglected tropical diseases --- disease mapping --- mass drug administration --- morbidity management --- skin diseases --- mobile phone application --- NTDs --- dermatology --- mHealth --- leprosy --- leprosy --- leprosy diagnosis --- PCR --- slit skin smears --- point of care test --- skin biopsy --- early diagnosis --- scabies --- outbreak --- drought --- emergency state --- scabies --- diagnosis --- digital handheld microscope --- resource-poor setting --- Amerindian communities --- Amazon lowland --- case management --- integration --- mass drug administration --- neglected tropical diseases --- skin infections --- skin NTDs --- surveillance --- training --- tropical skin diseases --- n/a --- Mite-Gallery Unit (MGU) --- Entodermoscopy (EDS) --- Dry Dermatoscopy (d-DS) --- Wet Dermatoscopy (w-DS) --- Enhanced Dermatoscopy (e-DS) --- subcutaneous mycosis --- actinomycetoma --- eumycetoma --- sporotrichosis Community dermatology

Advances in Food Analysis

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039217427 / 9783039217434 Year: Pages: 488 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-743-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This Topical Collection of Molecules provides the most recent advancements and trends within the framework of food analysis, confirming the growing public, academic, and industrial interest in this field. The articles broach topics related to sample preparation, separation science, spectroscopic techniques, sensors and biosensors, as well as investigations dealing with the characterization of macronutrients, micronutrients, and other biomolecules. It offers the latest updates regarding alternative food sources (e.g., algae), functional foods, effects of processing, chiral or achiral bioactive compounds, contaminants, and every topic related to food science that is appealing to readers. Nowadays, the increasing awareness of the close relation among diet, health, and social development is stimulating demands for high levels of quality and safety in agro-food production, as well as new studies to fill gaps in the actual body of knowledge about food composition. For these reasons, modern research in food science and human nutrition is moving from classical methodologies to advanced instrumental platforms for comprehensive characterization. Nondestructive spectroscopic and imaging technologies are also proposed for food process monitoring and quality control in real time.

Keywords

cuprous oxide nanoparticles --- reduced graphene oxide --- modified electrode --- sunset yellow --- second-derivative linear sweep voltammetry --- clenbuterol --- systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment --- real-time quantitative PCR --- high-throughput sequencing technology --- aptamers --- gold nanoparticles biosensor --- carbamates --- multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) --- enhanced product ion (EPI) --- mass fragmentation --- confirmatory method --- pesticide residues --- Croatian wines --- biogenic amines --- HPLC --- geographical origin --- polyelectrolyte composite film --- nitrite detection --- differential pulse voltammetry --- cyclic voltammetry --- mycotoxin --- dimerization --- HRMS --- NMR --- fruit jams --- food security --- phenolic acids --- quercetin --- agro-biodiversity --- HPLC fingerprint --- Polygonatum cyrtonema --- saccharides --- oligosaccharides --- fructose --- HPLC–QTOF–MS/MS --- steaming --- essential oil --- extraction techniques --- hops extracts --- hydrodistillation --- Marynka strain --- microwave-assisted hydrodistillation --- anthocyanins --- bioactive compounds --- Box–Behnken design --- microwave-assisted extraction --- myrtle --- Myrtus communis --- phenolic compounds --- Chia seed oil --- polyunsaturated fatty acid --- antioxidant --- lipid-lowering effect --- collagen peptide --- HPLC fingerprint --- antioxidant --- anti-inflammatory --- spectrum-effect relationship --- amino acids --- carbohydrates --- acidity --- polarity --- molecular weight --- Tricholoma matsutake --- Pol gene --- qualitative and quantitative PCR --- DNA extraction --- ?-blockers --- metabolites --- milk powder --- Q-Orbitrap --- rosé wines --- white wines --- bottle aging --- flavor profile --- closures --- anthocyanins --- bioactive compounds --- Box–Behnken design --- ultrasound-assisted extraction --- myrtle --- Myrtus communis L. --- phenolic compounds --- food safety --- kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) --- molecular identification --- phylogeny --- DNA barcode --- hard clams --- Meretrix lyrata --- lipid classes --- fatty acids --- phospholipids --- molecular species of phospholipid --- high resolution mass spectrometry --- impedimetric aptasensor --- screen-printed interface --- bifunctional polymer arms --- PAT detection --- apple juice --- chiral --- chiral stationary phases --- enantiomers --- food --- review --- Piper methysticum (kava) --- kavalactones --- flavokavains --- UHPLC-UV --- mass spectra --- isomerization --- single-laboratory validation --- quality control --- Lactarius deliciosus --- chemical composition --- antioxidant --- antihyperglycemic --- ?13C-IRMS --- fatty acids composition --- 1H-NMR --- walnut varieties --- poultry eggs --- thiamphenicol --- florfenicol --- florfenicol amine --- ASE --- UPLC-FLD --- Sojae semen praeparatum (SSP) --- fermentation --- conversion --- ultra-fast liquid chromatography (UFLC)–TripleTOF MS --- principal component analysis (PCA) --- microalgae --- Scenedesmus --- supercritical fluid extraction --- carotenoids --- fat-soluble vitamins --- antioxidants --- fruit juice --- blends --- adulteration --- 1H NMR --- PLS --- chemometrics --- natural mature honey --- immature honey --- chemometric analysis --- multi-physicochemical parameters --- food quality --- IMS --- food composition --- food process control --- food authentication --- food adulteration --- food safety --- antibiotics --- liquid chromatography mass spectrometry --- milk --- muscle --- validation

Mycoviruses

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ISBN: 9783038979968 / 9783038979975 Year: Pages: 350 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-997-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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A virus (from the Latin word ‘v?rus’ meaning ‘venom’ or ‘poison’) is a microorganism invisible to the naked eye. Viruses can multiply exclusively by entering a cell and using the cell’s resources to create copies of themselves. As the origin of their name suggests, viruses are generally considered dangerous, harmful and often deadly. Some of the most well-studied and widely known viruses, such as HIV and influenza, infect humans. However, viruses can also infect animals, plants and microorganisms, including fungi. Many fungi are medically, ecologically and economically significant, for example, causing diseases to humans, plants and insects or being used in industry to produce bread, cheese, beer and wine. Viruses that infect fungi are called mycoviruses (from the Greek work ‘myco’, meaning ‘fungus’). Mycoviruses do not cause harm to or kill the infected fungus; in contrast, they are ‘friendly’ viruses and we can utilize them to control the growth, pathogenicity and toxin production of fungi. This book describes a range of different mycoviruses and their geographical distribution, transmission and evolution, together with their effects on the fungal hosts and how these are brought about.

Keywords

RNA silencing --- gemycircularvirus --- mycovirus --- antiviral --- dicer --- dsRNA mycoviruses --- multiplex PCR --- Aspergillus fumigatus chrysovirus --- Aspergillus fumigatus partitivirus-1 --- Aspergillus fumigatus tetramycovirus-1. --- Botrytis cinerea --- hypovirus --- fusarivirus --- hypovirulence --- infection cushion --- Botrytis cinerea --- Botrytis cinerea mymonavirus 1 --- Mymonaviridae --- dsRNA virus --- mycovirus --- capsid protein --- capsid structure --- virus evolution --- viral lineage --- ScV-L-A --- PcV --- PsV-F --- RnQV1 --- chrysovirus --- mycovirus --- Aspergillus --- A. fumigatus --- A. nidulans --- A. niger --- A. thermomutatus --- biocontrol --- Saccharomyces paradoxus --- Totiviridae --- dsRNA virus --- killer system --- Trichoderma atroviride --- Mycovirus --- Partitivirus --- Fusarium head blight --- mycovirus --- RNA genome --- mitovirus --- Tymovirales --- Ethiopia --- Sclerotinia minor --- endornavirus --- hypovirulence --- transmissibility --- biological control --- Chalara fraxinea --- Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus --- ash dieback --- Narnaviridae --- evolution --- invasive species --- horizontal virus transmission --- Brunchorstia pinea --- conifers --- mycovirus --- dsRNA --- ssRNA --- phylogeny --- evolution --- mycovirus --- Beauveria bassiana --- partitivirus --- victorivirus --- polymycovirus --- selection pressure --- recombination --- transmission --- mycovirus --- populations study --- Cryphonectria parasitica --- chestnut blight --- Castanea sativa --- biological control --- Mycovirus --- rice blast fungus --- Magnaporthe oryzae. chrysovirus 1 --- double-stranded RNA virus --- hypovirulence --- Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA --- mycovirus --- dsRNA --- Alphapartitivirus --- genomic structure analysis --- mycorrhizal fungi --- mycovirus --- mitovirus --- Rhizophagus --- hypovirus --- small RNA --- tRFs --- mycovirus --- fungal viruses --- dsRNA mycoviruses --- hypervirulence --- Leptosphaeria biglobosa quadrivirus --- Botrytis cinerea --- hypovirulence --- partitivirus --- conidiogenesis --- sclerogenesis --- mycovirus --- dsRNA --- sequencing --- killer toxin --- totivirus --- brown rot --- stone fruit --- Prunus --- mycovirus --- hypervirulence --- hypovirulence --- isogenic --- database mining --- Entomophthora --- Entomophthoromycotina --- fungal virus --- mitochondrion --- mycovirus --- virus discovery --- Mitovirus --- Narnaviridae --- n/a

Molecular Advances in Wheat and Barley

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ISBN: 9783039213719 / 9783039213726 Year: Pages: 290 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-372-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Allohexaploid bread wheat and diploid barley are two of the most cultivated crops in the world. This book reports novel research and reviews concerning the use of modern technologies to understand the molecular bases for wheat and barley improvement. The contributions published in this book illustrate research advances in wheat and barley knowledge using modern molecular techniques. These molecular approaches cover genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and phenomic levels, together with new tools for gene identification and the development of novel molecular markers. Overall, the contributions for this book lead to a further understanding of regulatory systems in order to improve wheat and barley performance.

Keywords

Triticum durum --- Aegilops tauschii --- Triticum aestivum --- marker-trait associations --- genes --- bread wheat --- genetic biofortification --- favorable alleles --- allohexaploid --- homoeolog --- hybrid necrosis --- molecular marker --- wheat --- wheat --- rye --- 6R --- small segment translocation --- powdery mildew --- transgenic wheat --- 12-oxophytodienoate reductase --- jasmonates --- freezing tolerance --- HIGS --- transgene --- wheat --- barley --- cereal cyst nematodes --- wheat --- barely --- breeding --- biotechnology --- resistance --- Triticum aestivum --- Landrace --- Powdery mildew --- Bulked segregant analysis-RNA-Seq (BSR-Seq) --- Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) --- Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) --- Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici --- protein two-dimensional electrophoresis --- mass spectrometry --- Pm40 --- Barley --- Grain development --- Transcriptional dynamics --- RNA editing --- RNA-seq --- durum wheat --- Tunisian landraces --- center of diversity --- genetic diversity --- population structure --- DArTseq technology --- chromatin --- 3D-FISH --- nucleus --- introgression --- rye --- hybrid --- wheat --- genome stability --- wheat --- Thinopyrum --- chromosome --- ND-FISH --- oligo probe --- barley --- wheat --- protease --- germination --- grain --- abiotic stress --- antioxidant enzymes --- aquaporin --- TdPIP2 --- 1 --- histochemical analysis --- transgenic wheat --- transpiration --- wheat --- Aegilops tauschii --- Lr42 --- disease resistance --- molecular mapping --- KASP markers --- marker-assisted selection --- phytase --- wheat --- barley --- purple acid phosphatase phytase --- PAPhy --- mature grain phytase activity (MGPA) --- genome assembly --- bread wheat --- barley --- optical mapping --- BAC --- ribosomal DNA --- cereals --- CRISPR --- crops --- genetic engineering --- genome editing --- plant --- Triticeae --- n/a

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