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Taste | Power | Tradition - Geographical Indications as Cultural Property

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ISBN: 9783863952082 Year: DOI: 10.17875/gup2017-1004 Language: English
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-18 11:01:14
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The idea of origin in terms of space and culture as a special indicator of quality is one of the most influential strands in contemporary food. It impacts on politics, economics and everyday life – and it connects these fields with complex relations of power and culture. With geographical indications, the EU offers an instrument which allows for the declaration of specialties, qualified by their tradition, as typical for a defined area. The declaration serves to protect these products as intellectual and collective property and presents them as culinary heritage, thereby enabling sale at an added value. Accordingly, the EU instrument of geographical indications evokes the interests of a variety of disciplines, such as (agricultural) economics, (social) geography, sociology, anthropology and law. Nonetheless, dialogue and cooperation among the disciplines are quite rare. “Taste | Power | Tradition” gives an insight into this multidisciplinary debate and brings together empirical data and theoretical reflections from different perspectives.

Ausgezeichnet! - Zur Konstituierung kulturellen Eigentums durch geografische Herkunftsangaben

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ISBN: 9783863952891 Year: DOI: 10.17875/gup2016-1005 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-03 11:01:13
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Article descriptions such as “Allgäuer Emmentaler,” “Dresdner Christstollen” or “Bayerisches Bier” do not simply name culinary products, but locate them in certain regions and link them to memories and associations. They prove not only a spatial (geographic), but also a temporal (traditional) embedding in a certain region of origin. Such names are self-evidently attractive to clients, who have the choice between similar products, to producers, who are involved in international competition, and not least to politicians, who are interested in the protection and promotion of the economy in their areas of responsibility. Accordingly, the European Union (EU) established a legal instrument which regulates the use of geographical indications. It is based on the assumption that regions have common climatic, geological, biological and cultural characteristics. Using the example of geographical indications and four exemplarily chosen specialties (the cheeses: Allgäuer Emmentaler, Odenwälder Frühstückskäse, Piave and Parmigiano Reggiano), Sarah May has developed an ethnographically thick, internationally comparative description of local and transnational practices in the system of EU quality schemes for agricultural products. She combines terms and theses of law and economics and translates them into an issue of cultural anthropology: She focuses on regional (culinary) culture and its economic valorization, on the interests, strategies and conflicts which accompany the transformation of regional handed-down practices and products into legally protected, spatially limited collective property.

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origin --- indicator --- culinary heritage --- PDO

DNA Replication Origins in Microbial Genomes

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197798 Year: Pages: 115 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-779-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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DNA replication, a central event for cell proliferation, is the basis of biological inheritance. Complete and accurate DNA replication is integral to the maintenance of the genetic integrity of organisms. In all three domains of life, DNA replication begins at replication origins. In bacteria, replication typically initiates from a single replication origin (oriC), which contains several DnaA boxes and the AT-rich DNA unwinding element (DUE). In eukaryotic genomes, replication initiates from significantly more replication origins, activated simultaneously at a specific time. For eukaryotic organisms, replication origins are best characterized in the unicellular eukaryote budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The budding yeast origins contain an essential sequence element called the ARS (autonomously replicating sequence), while the fission yeast origins consist of AT-rich sequences. Within the archaeal domain, the multiple replication origins have been identified by a predict-and-verify approach in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus. The basic structure of replication origins is conserved among archaea, typically including an AT-rich unwinding region flanked by several short repetitive DNA sequences, known as origin recognition boxes (ORBs). It appears that archaea have a simplified version of the eukaryotic replication apparatus, which has led to considerable interest in the archaeal machinery as a model of that in eukaryotes. The research on replication origins is important not only in providing insights into the structure and function of the replication origins but also in understanding the regulatory mechanisms of the initiation step in DNA replication. Therefore, intensive studies have been carried out in the last two decades. The pioneer work to identify bacterial oriCs in silico is the GC-skew analysis. Later, a method of cumulative GC skew without sliding windows was proposed to give better resolution. Meanwhile, an oligomer-skew method was also proposed to predict oriC regions in bacterial genomes. As a unique representation of a DNA sequence, the Z-curve method has been proved to be an accurate and effective approach to predict bacterial and archaeal replication origins. Budding yeast origins have been predicted by Oriscan using similarity to the characterized ones, while the fission yeast origins have been identified initially from AT content calculation. In comparison with the in silico analysis, the experimental methods are time-consuming and labor-intensive, but convincing and reliable. To identify microbial replication origins in vivo or in vitro, a number of experimental methods have been used including construction of replicative oriC plasmids, microarray-based or high-throughput sequencing-based marker frequency analysis, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis and replication initiation point mapping (RIP mapping). The recent genome-wide approaches to identify and characterize replication origin locations have boosted the number of mapped yeast replication origins. In addition, the availability of increasing complete microbial genomes and emerging approaches has created challenges and opportunities for identification of their replication origins in silico, as well as in vivo and in vitro. The Frontiers in Microbiology Research Topic on DNA replication origins in microbial genomes is devoted to address the issues mentioned above, and aims to provide a comprehensive overview of current research in this field.

Prehistoric Myths in Modern Political Philosophy

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ISBN: 9780748678662 9781474431200 Year: Pages: 272 DOI: 10.26530/oapen_625284 Language: English
Publisher: Edinburgh University Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 100155
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-10 11:03:11
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This book looks at how modern philosophers pass on myths about prehistory. Why do political philosophers talk so much about the Stone Age? The state of nature, the origin of property, the origin of government, and the primordial nature of inequality and war are popular topics in political philosophy, but are they being used as more than just illustrative examples? Does the best available evidence from archaeology and anthropology support or conflict with the stories being passed on by political philosophers? This book presents a philosophical look at the origin of civilization, examining political theories to show how claims about prehistory are used and presents evidence that much of what we think we know about human origins comes not from scientific investigation but from the imagination of philosophers.

Wine Traceability

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ISBN: 9783039217687 9783039217694 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-769-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Wine traceability is a central theme in the current world market where consumers are increasingly demanding the quality and origin of food and drink. The wine production chain and wine composition are generally controlled by different laws (International Organization of Vine and Wine (OIV), European Union (EU), and national governments) and need specific documentation. Nevertheless, wine production is subject to fraud. Consequently, the improvement of the methods applied to verify the origin and quality of wines is very important to protect wine consumers and producers. In this book, eight different papers—six research papers and two reviews—address the topic from different points of view.

Extremophiles and Extreme Environments

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ISBN: 9783038421771 9783038421788 Year: Pages: 438 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-178-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-06-07 11:29:03
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Vitruvii Basilicana et cetera

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ISBN: 9783731508502 Year: Pages: 94 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000086088 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Arts in general
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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Seven Essays on Vitruvius and his Instructions on the Building of Basilicas, on The Basilica and here architectural Derivation of the greek Stoa, on the Basilica Aemilia at the Forum Romanum, on Architectural Scale Plans in the Antiquity und on dubious Reconstructions of Basilicas.

The Origin and Early Evolution of Life: Prebiotic Chemistry of Biomolecules

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ISBN: 9783039216062 9783039216079 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-607-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Studying the origin of life is one of man’s greatest achievements over the last sixty years. The fields of interest encompassed by this quest are multiple and interdisciplinary: chemistry, physics, biology, biochemistry, mathematics, geology but also statistics, atmospheric science, meteorology, oceanography, and astrophysics. Recent scientific discoveries, such as water on Mars and the existence of super-Earths with atmospheres similar to primordial Earth, have pushed researchers to simulate prebiotic conditions in explaining the abiotic formation of molecules essential to life. This collection of articles offers an overview of recent discoveries in the field of prebiotic chemistry of biomolecules, their formation and selection, and the evolution of complex chemical systems.

Keywords

origin of life --- systems chemistry --- Chemomimesis --- Molecular Darwinism --- origin of life --- prebiotic chemistry --- thiol-rich peptides --- cysteine --- aminonitriles --- imidazoles --- origin of life --- prebiotic chemistry --- nucleotide and nucleoside synthesis --- protein design --- novel metalloproteins --- binary patterned amino acid sequences --- prebiotic chemistry --- population growth --- replication --- growth order --- Darwinian evolution --- selection --- origin of life --- abiogenesis --- carbon fixation --- hydrothermal vents --- electrochemistry --- reduction --- digit multiplicity --- information --- transmission --- encoding --- translation --- diversity --- function --- origin of life --- layered double hydroxide (LDH) clay --- pentose diphosphate --- pentopyranose nucleic acid --- arabinopyranose nucleic acid --- RNA --- base pairing --- purine precursor --- inosine --- AICAR --- peptide/RNA world --- prebiotic information system --- translation and the genetic code --- bridge peptide and aaRS --- ribozyme and tRNA --- tRNA and mRNA --- coevolution of translation machine and the genetic code --- MVC architecture pattern and biological information --- numerical codons --- AnyLogic software for computer simulation of translation machine --- phosphoryl transfer --- metabolism --- energy currency --- mixed anhydride --- origin of life --- hypercycle --- Monte Carlo --- prebiotic chemistry --- carbamic acid --- carbon dioxide-ammonia ices --- infrared spectra --- anharmonicity --- origin of life --- metabolism --- phosphates --- network expansion simulation --- thermodynamic bottleneck --- molecular clocks --- ab initio molecular dynamics --- catalysis --- prebiotic soup --- origins of life --- aldol reaction --- mechanochemistry --- minerals --- monosaccharides --- prebiotic chemistry --- prebiotic polymerization --- nucleotide oligomerization --- abasic oligomers --- nucleotide stability --- stability as a selection pressure --- dry-wet cycles --- genetic code origin --- tRNA accretion model --- tRNA-synthetase --- metabolism --- thioester --- nucleotidyltransferases --- early peptides --- ribosome --- n/a

Das Herkunftslandprinzip der E-Commerce-Richtlinie und seine Auswirkung auf die aktuelle Mediengesetzgebung in Deutschland

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe Medientheorie & Medienrecht ISBN: 9783941159471 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.24921/2020.94115947 Language: German
Publisher: Carl Grossmann Verlag
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-04 23:57:54
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Are Germany's current efforts to implement strict national legal requirements for social networks based in other EU member states compatible with the country of origin principle? Are there exceptions to which the federal and state legislators can rely on media, network and youth protection law? Or do the German regulations and proposed regulations violate European law? The first volume of the new series on Media Law & Media Theory examines the issues, taking into account the case law of the ECJ and the communications of the EU Commission.

Radio Galaxies at TeV Energies

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ISBN: 9783039287505 / 9783039287512 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-751-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General) --- Astronomy (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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It is common believe that the centers of all galaxies exhibit supermassive black holes with masses ranging from millions up to billions of the mass of our Sun. By accreting surrounding matter, the luminosity of these galactic nuclei can outshine the emission of their host galaxies. If this is the case, they are called active galactic nuclei. Some of these objects eject powerful outflows composed of plasma, called jets. These jets can produce non-thermal radiation which observable across the entire electromagnetic spectrum from radio up to the gamma-ray frequencies. At highest frequencies (TeV range) most of the detected active galaxies have jets directed along or close to the line of sight. However, also galaxies with larger angles to the line of sight showing fascinating features were discovered, in seeming contradiction to traditional models for these so-called radio galaxies. Thus, the latter are of particular importance for understanding active galactic nuclei in general. This Special Issue contains reviews and research articles about the current knowledge of radio galaxies at TeV energies, including observational results and theoretical models. It is intended to guide the interested reader deeper into this fascinating discipline of modern day astronomy.

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