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Molecular Biology of the Transfer RNA Revisited

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193660 Year: Pages: 164 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-366-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Genetics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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Abstract

Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are one of the classical non-coding RNAs whose lengths are approximately 70–100 bases. The secondary structure of tRNAs can be represented as the cloverleaf with 4 stems, and the three dimensional structure as an “L” shape. Historically, the basic function of tRNA as an essential component of translation was established in 1960s, i.e., each tRNA is charged with a target amino acid and these are delivered to the ribosome during protein synthesis. However, recent data suggests that the role of tRNA in cellular regulation goes beyond this paradigm. In most Archaea and Eukarya, precursor tRNAs are often interrupted by a short intron inserted strictly between the first and second nucleotide downstream of the anticodon, known as canonical nucleotide position (37/38). Recently, a number of reports describe novel aspects of tRNAs in terms of gene diversity, for example, several types of disrupted tRNA genes have been reported in the Archaea and primitive Eukarya, including multiple-intron-containing tRNA genes, split tRNA genes, and permuted tRNA genes. Our understanding of the enzymes involved in tRNA functions (e.g., aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, tRNA splicing endonuclease, tRNA ligase) has deepened. Moreover, it is well known that tRNA possesses many types of base modifications whose enzymatic regulations remain to be fully elucidated. It was reported that impaired tRNA nuclear-cytoplasmic export links DNA damage and cell-cycle checkpoint. Furthermore, a variety of additional functions of tRNA, beyond its translation of the genetic code, have emerged rapidly. For instance, tRNA cleavage is a conserved part of the responses to a variety of stresses in eukaryotic cells. Age-associated or tissue-specific tRNA fragmentation has also been observed. Several papers suggested that some of these tRNA fragments might be involve in the cellular RNA interference (RNAi) system. These exciting data, have lead to this call for a Research Topic, that plans to revisit and summarize the molecular biology of tRNA. Beyond the topics outlined above, we have highlighted recent developments in bioinformatics tools and databases for tRNA analyses.

Genetics and Genomics of Forest Trees

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ISBN: 9783038972983 9783038972990 Year: Pages: 332 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-299-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Forestry --- Biology --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-23 10:42:07
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Forest tree genetics and genomics are advancing at an accelerated rate, thanks to recent developments in high-throughput, next-generation sequencing capabilities, and novel biostatistical tools. Population and landscape genetics and genomics have seen the rise of new approaches implemented in large-scale studies that employ the use of genome-wide sampling. Such studies have started to discern the dynamics of neutral and adaptive variation in nature and the processes that underlie spatially explicit patterns of genetic and genomic variation in nature. The continuous development of genetic maps in forest trees and the expansion of QTL and association mapping approaches contribute to the unravelling of the genotype-phenotype relationship and lead to marker-assisted and genome-wide selection. However, major challenges lie ahead. Recent literature suggests that species demography and genetic diversity have been affected both by climatic oscillations and anthropogenically induced stresses in a way calls into question the possibility of future adaptation. Moreover, the pace of contemporary environmental change presents a great challenge to forest tree populations and their ability to adapt, taking into consideration their life history characteristics. Several questions emerge that include, but are not limited to, the interpretation of forest tree genome surveillance and their structural/functional properties, the adaptive and neutral processes that have shaped forest tree genomes, the analysis of phenotypic traits relevant to adaptation (especially adaptation under contemporary climate change), the link between epigenetics/epigenomics and phenotype/genotype, and the use of genetics/genomics as well as genetic monitoring to advance conservation priorities.

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