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Microbiome Interplay and Control

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455058 Year: Pages: 421 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-505-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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In complex systems, such as our body or a plant, the host is living together with thousands of microbes, which support the entire system in function and health. The stability of a microbiome is influenced by environmental changes, introduction of microbes and microbial communities, or other factors. As learned in the past, microbial diversity is the key and low-diverse microbiomes often mirror out-of-control situations or disease. It is now our task to understand the molecular principles behind the complex interaction of microbes in, on and around us in order to optimize and control the function of the microbial community – by changing the environment or the addition of the right microorganisms. This Research Topic focuses on studies (including e.g. original research, perspectives, mini reviews, and opinion papers) that investigate and discuss: 1) The role of the microbiome for the host/environmental system 2) The exchange and change of microbes and microbial communities (interplay) 3) The influence of external factors toward the stability of a microbiome 4) Methods, possibilities and approaches to change and control a system’s microbiome (e.g. in human or plant disease) 5) Experimental systems and approaches in microbiome research.The articles span the areas: human health and disease, animal and plant microbiomes, microbial interplay and control, methodology and the built environment microbiome.

Microorganisms for Functional Food

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198825 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-882-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Nowadays, most of Western consumers are aware that a targeted diet could be an important tool for fighting ageing and diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Microorganisms may be exploited for setting up novel foods that, beside their nutritional value, may positively impact on consumers’ health. Some microorganisms may benefit host when ingested as viable cells carried by food and beverages. This falls in the intriguing field of probiotics, recently brought forward by the numerous probiotic claims rejected by the European Food Safety Authority. This research topic includes research articles and reviews/perspectives that (i) contribute to understand the mechanism underlying the health effects of probiotic microorganisms; (ii) show integrated approaches for selecting new probiotics; (iii) report about non-dairy food items as novel carriers of probiotics; and (iv) deal with biologically active compounds from microorganisms.

Alternatives to Antimicrobial Growth Promoters and Their Impact in Gut Microbiota, Health and Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453757 Year: Pages: 92 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-375-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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In the context of disease pathogenesis, it has been observed that after inadequate administration of antibiotics, animals become more susceptible to intestinal colonization and organ invasion by enteropathogens, these could be related to changes caused in the gastrointestinal microbial community. Therefore, we must reconsider the negative consequences that disruption of the microbiome has in the biology of metazoans (dysbacteriosis). Alternations of the intestinal microbiota composition in animals can be caused by multiple factors, including the misuse of antibiotics, having as a result a negative impact on the development and function of the immune, endocrine, nervous, and digestive systems. For this reason, social concerns regarding the development of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms have resulted in an urgent necessity to find feasible alternatives to maintain animal health and performance without the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP), in order to sustain livestock production as an economically viable source of food for human consumption. Hence, research about AGP alternatives such as probiotics, prebiotics, phytochemicals, organic acids, enzymes, and vaccines has become a priority for many scientists around the world.

Recent Discoveries in Evolutionary and Genomic Microbiology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196173 Year: Pages: 99 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-617-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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This collection represents certain discoveries that were made in evolutionary and genomic microbiology during the recent ten years. We attempted to shed light on topical issues of microbial evolution and microbiome biology. In our eyes, these articles are of an excellent quality and may be helpful both for casual readers and for specialists in the field.

2015: Which new directions for Alzheimer's disease?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195350 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-535-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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According to the World Health Organization, more than 40 million people in the world are affected with dementia. To date, 60-70% of the cases of dementia are attributed to the Alzheimer's disease (AD). This neurodegenerative disorder gradually takes place over a period of at least 20 years before the onset of symptoms, which are impaired memory, apathy and depression. The characteristics of AD consist in neurofibrillary tangles (intraneuronal aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins) and senile plaques (dense extraneuronal deposits composed of amyloid ß (Aß)). The other features linked to these two core pathological hallmarks of AD are inflammation, oxidative stress, progressive synaptic and neuronal loss. In past years, some of the emerging therapeutic strategies against AD were employed to deal with the pathological hallmarks of the disease. Science teams all over the world try to restore the tau phosphorylation equilibrium. Their purpose is to interfere with the aggregation of tau and decrease its amount of proteins per se as well. Furthermore, they are trying either to stimulate the elimination processes of the aggregated tau proteins or to stop the formation of Aß peptides. This could be reached by the stimulation of the classic techniques of protein degradation such as the autophagic pathway, or by the targeted immunotherapy. In this Research Topic, we wish to summarize and review the etiology of AD and the related therapeutic opportunities for the next decades. To fully understand the precise mechanisms underlying AD, research findings, reviews, new insights and new approaches include AD and related tauopathies, tau phosphorylation balance, pharmacological compounds against AD, neuroprotection strategies and new therapeutic ways but also risk factors for AD and AD genetic information are included in this issue.

From Genes to Species: Novel Insights from Metagenomics

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199754 Year: Pages: 229 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-975-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The majority of microbes in many environments are considered “as yet uncultured” and were traditionally considered inaccessible for study through the microbiological gold standard of pure culture. The emergence of metagenomic approaches has allowed researchers to access and study these microbes in a culture-independent manner through DNA sequencing and functional expression of metagenomic DNA in a heterologous host. Metagenomics has revealed an extraordinary degree of diversity and novelty, not only among microbial communities themselves, but also within the genomes of these microbes. This Research Topic aims to showcase the utility of metagenomics to gain insights on the microbial and genomic diversity in different environments by revealing the breadth of novelty that was in the past, largely untapped.

New Insights into Microbial Ecology through Subtle Nucleotide Variation

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199884 Year: Pages: 133 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-988-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The 16S ribosomal RNA gene commonly serves as a molecular marker for investigating microbial community composition and structure. Vast amounts of 16S rRNA amplicon data generated from environmental samples thanks to the recent advances in sequencing technologies allowed microbial ecologists to explore microbial community dynamics over temporal and spatial scales deeper than ever before. However, widely used methods for the analysis of bacterial communities generally ignore subtle nucleotide variations among high-throughput sequencing reads and often fail to resolve ecologically meaningful differences between closely related organisms in complex microbial datasets. Lack of proper partitioning of the sequencing data into relevant units often masks important ecological patterns. Our research topic contains articles that use oligotyping to demonstrate the importantance of high-resolution analyses of marker gene data, and providides further evidence why microbial ecologists should open the "black box" of OTUs identified through arbitrary sequence similarity thresholds.

T Cell Regulation by the Environment

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197330 Year: Pages: 115 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-733-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Naïve T cells get activated upon encounter with their cognate antigen and differentiate into a specific subset of effector cells. These T cells are themselves plastic and are able to re-differentiate into another subset, changing both phenotype and function. Differentiation into a specific subset depends on the nature of the antigen and of the environmental milieu. Notably, certain nutrients, such as vitamins A and D, sodium chloride, have been shown to modulate T cell responses and influence T cell differentiation. Parasite infection can also skew Th differentiation. Similarly, the gut microbiota regulates the development of immune responses. Lastly, the key role of metabolism on T cells has also been demonstrated. This series of articles highlights some of the multiple links existing between environmental factors and T cell responses.

Gut Health: The New Paradigm in Animal Production?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450299 Year: Pages: 163 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-029-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Gut health and specifically the gut microbiome-host interaction is currently a major research topic across the life sciences. In the case of animal sciences research into animal production and health, the gut has been a continuous area of interest. Production parameters such as growth and feed efficiency are entirely dependent on optimum gut health. In addition, the gut is a major immune organ and one of the first lines of defense in animal disease. Recent changes in animal production management and feed regulations, both regulatory and consumer driven, have placed added emphasis on finding ways to optimize gut health in novel and effective ways. In this volume we bring together original research and review articles covering three major categories of gut health and animal production: the gut microbiome, mucosal immunology, and feed-based interventions. Included within these categories is a broad range of scientific expertise and experimental approaches that span food animal production. Our goal in bringing together the articles on this research topic is to survey the current knowledge on gut health in animal production. The following 15 articles include knowledge and perspectives from researchers from multiple countries and research perspectives, all with the central goal of improving animal health and production.

Microbial Food Safety Along The Dairy Chain

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453122 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-312-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology --- Medicine (General) --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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The dairy chain is an integral part of global food supply, with dairy food products a staple component of recommended healthy diets. The dairy food chain from production through to the consumer is complex, with various opportunities for microbial contamination of ingredients or food product, and as such interventions are key to preventing or controlling such contamination. Dairy foods often include a microbial control step in their production such as pasteurization, but in some cases may not, as with raw milk cheeses. Microbial contamination may lead to a deterioration in food quality due to spoilage organisms, or may become a health risk to consumers should the contaminant be a pathogenic microorganism. As such food safety and food production are intrinsically linked. This Research Topic eBook includes submissions on issues relating to the microbiological integrity of the dairy food chain, such as the ecology of pathogenic and spoilage organisms through the dairy farm to fork paradigm, their significance to dairy foods and health, and genomic analysis of these microorganisms.

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