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Bismuth - Advanced Applications and Defects Characterization

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ISBN: 9781789232622 9781789232639 Year: Pages: 230 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.71174 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Mining and Metallurgy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Bismuth (Bi) is a post-transition metal element with the atomic number of 83, which belongs to the pnictogen group elements in Period 6 in the elemental periodic table. As a heavy metal, the hazard of Bi is unusually low in contrast to its neighbors Pb and Sb. This property, along with other typical characteristics like strong diamagnetism and low thermal conductivity, makes Bi attractive in industrial applications. There are more than 100 commercial bismuth products, from pharmaceutical to industrial catalysts. Based on the wide applications of Bi materials, this book goes further and mainly focuses on the potential uses of Bi-based materials, which consist of nine chapters. In addition, a special chapter concerning the defect in bismuth is also presented.

Titanium Dioxide - Material for a Sustainable Environment

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ISBN: 9781789233261 9781789233278 Year: Pages: 518 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.70290 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Mining and Metallurgy
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Titanium dioxide is currently being used in many industrial products. It provides unique photocatalytic properties for water splitting and purification, bacterial inactivation, and organics degradation. It has also been widely used as the photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells and coatings for self-cleaning surfaces, biomedical implants, and nanomedicine. This book covers various aspects of titanium dioxide nanomaterials including their unique one-dimensional, two-dimensional, mesoporous, and hierarchical nanostructures and their synthetic methods such as sol-gel, hydrothermal, anodic oxidation, and electrophoretic deposition, as well as its key applications in environmental and energy sectors. Through these 24 chapters written by experts from the international scientific community, readers will have access to a comprehensive overview of the recent research and development findings on the titanium dioxide nanomaterials.

Noble and Precious Metals - Properties, Nanoscale Effects and Applications

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ISBN: 9781789232929 9781789232936 Year: Pages: 430 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69142 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Mining and Metallurgy
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The use of copper, silver, gold and platinum in jewelry as a measure of wealth is well known. This book contains 19 chapters written by international authors on other uses and applications of noble and precious metals (copper, silver, gold, platinum, palladium, iridium, osmium, rhodium, ruthenium, and rhenium). The topics covered include surface-enhanced Raman scattering, quantum dots, synthesis and properties of nanostructures, and its applications in the diverse fields such as high-tech engineering, nanotechnology, catalysis, and biomedical applications. The basis for these applications is their high-free electron concentrations combined with high-temperature stability and corrosion resistance and methods developed for synthesizing nanostructures. Recent developments in all these areas with up-to-date references are emphasized.

Superalloys for Industry Applications

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ISBN: 9781789235388 9781789235395 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.5772/65570 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Mining and Metallurgy
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In recent years, superalloys have been widespread usage in aerospace gas turbine engine parts. The main reason of it is that these materials have high yield, ultimate tensile strength, and very good corrosion/oxidation resistance, and they combine these good properties with an excellent creep resistance at elevated temperatures. In spite of their outstanding properties, superalloys can lose their mechanical strength because of wear, tear, and crack formation when they are exposed to high-service temperatures and heavy working conditions. Moreover, corrosion is another important issue for superalloys because the materials of gas turbine engine parts are exposed to harsh engine environments, which consist of many pollutants and hot gases. Therefore, special attention must be given to the corrosion behavior of superalloys. This book provides information on the interaction between the microstructure of alloys and their mechanical properties and also the position of superalloys in the manufacturing industry. Topics cover the minimization of the formation of microsegregation and detrimental phases in the GTA welding of superalloys, oxidation kinetics of nickel-based superalloys used in the manufacture of rings for aircraft engines, a review of the work done over the last two decades to understand the hot corrosion behavior of superalloys used in advanced coal-based power plants, ultrasonic-assisted machining of Inconel 718, dry high-speed turning of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy, and laser welding in dentistry. The book ""Superalloys for Industry Applications"" consists of contributions by scientists and engineers who are experienced in the production, design, and analysis of materials from all around the world. We hope that this book will be an irreplaceable source of study for manufacturing, degradation mechanisms, and reliability of superalloys.

Shape-Memory Materials

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ISBN: 9781789236828 9781789236835 Year: Pages: 120 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.74096 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Mining and Metallurgy
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Shape-memory materials are materials that react under variations of electric or magnetic fields, physical or chemical changes, and that when returning to the initial conditions recover their original form, capable of repeating this process an infinite number of times without deteriorating. The characteristics, fabrication techniques, and thermomechanical treatment of various shape-memory materials are described in detail in this book. The book describes several principles and applications.

Novel Metal Electrodeposition and the Recent Application

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ISBN: 9781789852950 9781789852967 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73382 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Mining and Metallurgy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Gold and noble metals have been attractive to humans from ancient times because of their beautiful features. In modern society, noble metals, especially gold, play important roles as components in electronic devices because of their high electrical conductivity, chemical stability, and density. In the field of MEMS devices, the demand for continuous miniaturization and sensitivity enhancement is always high. Especially for MEMS accelerometers, sensitivity is affected by Brownian noise, and components with sufficient mass are needed to suppress this noise. Therefore, it is difficult to reduce the dimensions of components to allow further miniaturization of the device. This book presents recent progress in noble metal electrodeposition and applications of gold-based materials in the realization of highly sensitive CMOS-MEMS accelerometers.

Magnesium Alloys - Design, Processing and Properties

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ISBN: 9789533075204 Year: Pages: 540 DOI: 10.5772/560 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Mining and Metallurgy
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Scientists and engineers for decades searched to utilize magnesium, known of its low density, for light-weighting in many industrial sectors. This book provides a broad review of recent global developments in theory and practice of modern magnesium alloys. It covers fundamental aspects of alloy strengthening, recrystallization, details of microstructure and a unique role of grain refinement. The theory is linked with elements of alloy design and specific properties, including fatigue and creep resistance. Also technologies of alloy formation and processing, such as sheet rolling, semi-solid forming, welding and joining are considered. An opportunity of creation the metal matrix composite based on magnesium matrix is described along with carbon nanotubes as an effective reinforcement. A mixture of science and technology makes this book very useful for professionals from academia and industry.

Magnesium Alloys - Corrosion and Surface Treatments

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ISBN: 9789533079721 Year: Pages: 358 DOI: 10.5772/1427 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Mining and Metallurgy
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A resistance of magnesium alloys to surface degradation is paramount for their applications in automotive, aerospace, consumer electronics and general-purpose markets. An emphasis of this book is on oxidation, corrosion and surface modifications, designed to enhance the alloy surface stability. It covers a nature of oxides grown at elevated temperatures and oxidation characteristics of selected alloys along with elements of general and electrochemical corrosion. Medical applications are considered that explore bio-compatibility of magnesium alloys. Also techniques of surface modifications, designed to improve not only corrosion resistance but also corrosion fatigue, wear and other behaviors, are described. The book represents a valuable resource for scientists and engineers from academia and industry.

Ferroelectrics - Characterization and Modeling

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ISBN: 9789533074559 Year: Pages: 600 DOI: 10.5772/946 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Electricity
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Ferroelectric materials have been and still are widely used in many applications, that have moved from sonar towards breakthrough technologies such as memories or optical devices. This book is a part of a four volume collection (covering material aspects, physical effects, characterization and modeling, and applications) and focuses on the characterization of ferroelectric materials, including structural, electrical and multiphysic aspects, as well as innovative techniques for modeling and predicting the performance of these devices using phenomenological approaches and nonlinear methods. Hence, the aim of this book is to provide an up-to-date review of recent scientific findings and recent advances in the field of ferroelectric system characterization and modeling, allowing a deep understanding of ferroelectricity.

Ferroelectrics - Applications

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ISBN: 9789533074566 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.5772/947 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Electricity
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Ferroelectric materials have been and still are widely used in many applications, that have moved from sonar towards breakthrough technologies such as memories or optical devices. This book is a part of a four volume collection (covering material aspects, physical effects, characterization and modeling, and applications) and focuses on the application of ferroelectric devices to innovative systems. In particular, the use of these materials as varying capacitors, gyroscope, acoustics sensors and actuators, microgenerators and memory devices will be exposed, providing an up-to-date review of recent scientific findings and recent advances in the field of ferroelectric devices.

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