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Information Geometry

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ISBN: 9783038976325 Year: Pages: 356 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-633-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mathematics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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This Special Issue of the journal Entropy, titled “Information Geometry I”, contains a collection of 17 papers concerning the foundations and applications of information geometry. Based on a geometrical interpretation of probability, information geometry has become a rich mathematical field employing the methods of differential geometry. It has numerous applications to data science, physics, and neuroscience. Presenting original research, yet written in an accessible, tutorial style, this collection of papers will be useful for scientists who are new to the field, while providing an excellent reference for the more experienced researcher. Several papers are written by authorities in the field, and topics cover the foundations of information geometry, as well as applications to statistics, Bayesian inference, machine learning, complex systems, physics, and neuroscience.

Foundations of Quantum Theory: From Classical Concepts to Operator Algebras

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Book Series: Fundamental Theories of Physics ISSN: 0168-1222 ISBN: 9783319517773 Volume: 188 Pages: 861 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51777-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-19 16:33:13
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This book studies the foundations of quantum theory through its relationship to classical physics. This idea goes back to the Copenhagen Interpretation (in the original version due to Bohr and Heisenberg), which the author relates to the mathematical formalism of operator algebras originally created by von Neumann. The book therefore includes comprehensive appendices on functional analysis and C*-algebras, as well as a briefer one on logic, category theory, and topos theory. Matters of foundational as well as mathematical interest that are covered in detail include symmetry (and its "spontaneous" breaking), the measurement problem, the Kochen-Specker, Free Will, and Bell Theorems, the Kadison-Singer conjecture, quantization, indistinguishable particles, the quantum theory of large systems, and quantum logic, the latter in connection with the topos approach to quantum theory.

Role of lipids in virus assembly

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195824 Year: Pages: 91 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-582-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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RNA enveloped viruses comprise several families belonging to plus and minus strand RNA viruses, such as retroviruses, flavoviruses and orthomyxoviruses. Viruses utilize cellular lipids during critical steps of replication like entry, assembly and egress. Growing evidence indicate important roles for lipids and lipid nanodomains in virus assembly. This special topic covers key aspects of virus-membrane interactions during assembly and egress, especially those of retroviruses and Ebola virus (EBOV). Virus assembly and release involve specific and nonspecific interactions between viral proteins and membrane compartments. Retroviral Gag proteins assemble predominantly on the PM. Despite the great progress in identifying the factors that modulate retroviral Gag assembly on the PM, there are still gaps in our understanding of precise mechanisms of Gag-membrane interactions. Studies over the last two decades have focused on the mechanisms by which other retroviral Gag proteins interact with membranes during assembly. These include human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV), murine leukemia virus (MLV), and human T-lymphotropic virus type (HTLV-1). Additionally, assembly of filoviruses such as EBOV also occurs on the inner leaflet of the PM. The articles published under this special topic highlight the latest understanding of the role of membrane lipids during virus assembly, egress and release.

Keywords

retroviruses --- HIV 1 --- Gag --- Matrix --- membrane --- NMR --- Ebola --- VP40

A Unifying Theory of Evolution Generated by Means of Information Modelling

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Book Series: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics ISSN: 09269630 18798365 ISBN: 9781614996873 9781614996880 Year: Volume: 230 Pages: 236 DOI: 10.3233/978-1-61499-688-0-i Language: English
Publisher: IOS Press
Subject: Biology --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-08 13:32:57
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"Stringent ways of thinking, ‘conceptual frameworks’, are necessary in science. The drawback is that the associated assumptions, concepts, rules and practice may become so deeply entrenched that they turn into tacit knowledge and hence give rise to constraints in scientific thought and practice – that is, a new kind of plethora that seriously blinds and thereby hampers scientific progress. This book, 'A Unifying Theory of Evolution Generated by Means of Information Modelling', presents a methodology for describing complex knowledge domains. It applies a template information model based on a dynamic structure of interrelated functions, called the Mereon Matrix. Application of this template model to the field of evolutionary theories enabled the unification of the sometimes chaotic and competing field of evolutionary theories, large and small, seamlessly in a shared framework. The author has Masters degrees in both biochemistry and computer science, as well as a European Doctorate and PhD in health informatics and has spent 35 years in full-time research. It is her particular combination of professional experience and expertise together with the template information model which has enabled her to write this book.Whilst primarily aimed at a scientific audience, and evolutionary biologists in particular, the book will be of interest to all those looking for new approaches to exploring and explaining phenomena in nature, and because the text is largely non-technical in nature, much of the content will also be accessible to a wider readership."

Isothermes und thermisch-mechanisches Ermüdungsverhalten von Verbundwerkstoffen mit Durchdringungsgefüge (Preform-MMCs)

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Angewandte Materialien, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 21929963 ISBN: 9783731500247 Year: Volume: 22 Pages: 236 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000034742 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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This study deals with the fatigue behaviour of metal-matrix-composites (MMCs) having ceramic contents of 30 to 39 Vol-%. The MMCs where produced by way of infiltrating a ceramic preform by an aluminium alloy. The characterisation of the MMC's cyclic and fatigue behaviour was researched on the basis of isothermal and thermal-mechanical fatigue tests.

Mathematics of Economics and Business

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9780203401385 9780415332804 9780415332811 9781134319312 9781134319305 9781134319268 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203401385 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Mathematics --- Business and Management --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:18
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For all students who wish to understand current economic and business literature, knowledge of mathematical methods has become a prerequisite. Clear and concise, with precise definitions and theorems, Werner and Sotskov cover all the major topics required to gain a firm grounding in this subject including sequences, series, applications in finance, functions, differentiations, differentials and difference equations, optimizations with and without constraints, integrations and much more. Containing exercises and worked examples, precise definitions and theorems as well as economic applications, this book provides the reader with a comprehensive understanding of the mathematical models and tools used in both economics and business.

Keywords

inverse --- mapping --- horners --- scheme --- linear --- real --- number --- cos --- equations --- matrix

Globalisation and Poverty

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Book Series: Routledge Studies in Globalisation ISBN: 9780203088333 9780415343602 9780415479677 9781134289356 9781134289349 9781134289301 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203088333 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Economics --- Political Science --- Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:23
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The consequences of globalization for the world's poor are uncertain and fierce rhetoric is dividing its supporters and detractors. The channels of effect of essentially macroeconomic shocks on the microeconomic position of individuals and households in poor countries are many and various. This book addresses three core issues: 1) what are the main channels of effect? 2) what are the lessons to be learned from policy measures to alleviate negative poverty consequences? and 3) do the proposed analytical approaches assist in providing a monitoring capability? This volume assesses the more easily quantifiable effects resulting from price and quantity responses in the goods and labour markets. It includes studies of Colombia, Ghana, India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Vietnam. It uses key analytical approaches, most of which are based on numerical simulation methods employing models with different levels of complexity. These models capture the features of an economy, how it functions, and how it might respond to globalization shocks. The most important collective contribution of the authors is their establishment of directions and magnitudes of effect, based on empirical evidence.

Keywords

trade --- liberalisation --- computable --- general --- equilibrium --- social --- accounting --- matrix --- shocks --- reforms

Neuroplasticity and Extracellular Proteolysis

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198511 Year: Pages: 151 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-851-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Neuroplasticity refers to the ability of the Central Nervous System (CNS) to alter its structure and function in response to a variety of physiological and pathological processes such as development, cognition, injury or neurological diseases. Since more than four decades, studies on synaptic plasticity in the context of memory and learning attracted a remarkable interest. Soon after first seminal works on synaptic plasticity were published, research in this field was extended by studies on non-synaptic as wells as structural plasticity towards a goal to understand cellular and molecular determinants of cognition. Over the past two decades, yet two additional crucial players in neuroplastic phenomena started to be intensely investigated – glial cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Growing awareness that glial cells, especially astrocytes, are important regulators of synaptic functions gave rise to a novel concept of a tri-partite synapse. Also, over the last two decades, a growing body of evidence has accumulated that the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the brain is strongly involved in regulation of neurons, in particular, in synaptic plasticity. Thus, a concept of tetra-partite synapse was put forward by some neuroscientists. The cross-talk between neuron-glia-ECM system involves enzymatic degradation of proteins or peptides and amino acids occurring in each of these brain constituents by means of a variety of proteases. Importantly, it has been realized that proteases such as serine proteases and matrix metalloproteinases, not only accompany “robust” phenomena such as cell division, or development or neurodegnerative conditions but may play a very subtle signaling functions, particularly important in memory acquisition. Indeed, the repertoire of substrates for these enzymes covers a wide variety of proteins known to play important role in the neuroplastic phenomena (e.g. BDNF, TNF-a, ephrin systems, various cell adhesion molecules, etc.). In result, the role of metalloproteinases and such serine proteases as tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), neuropsin or neurotrypsin in synaptic plasticity as well as in learning and memory has been particularly well demonstrated. It needs to be emphasized, however, that in spite of a remarkable progress in this field, several basic questions regarding molecular and cellular mechanisms remain unanswered. Potential involvement of so many important players (various proteases and their substrates in neurons, glia and in ECM) points to an enormous potential for plasticity phenomena but makes also studies into underlying mechanisms particularly difficult. In the proposed Research Topic we provide both review of the current state of the art and present some original reports on specific aspects of the role of proteolysis in neuroplasticity phenomena. The present ebook starts with extensive reviews describing involvement of proteolysis not only in synaptic plasticity but also in regulating endogenous excitability and structural changes at the network, cellular and subcellular levels. Cross-talk between neuroplasticity and proteolysis is also emphasized in the context of development and in relation to various pathologies. Whereas in the first part of the present ebook, the major focus is on metalloproteinases, the successive articles address the role of neuropsin and thrombin. The Research Topic is concluded with a series of articles describing the components of extracellular matrix and adhesion proteins and their elaboration by mechanisms dependent directly or indirectly on proteolysis. We do hope that the present ebook will further stimulate the interest in the fascinating investigations into neuroplasticity-proteolysis cross-talk.

Liver Myofibroblasts

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199891 Year: Pages: 99 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-989-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Myofibroblasts (MFB) are found in most tissues of the body. They have the matrix-producing functions of fibroblasts and contractile properties that are known from smooth muscle cells. Fundamental work of the last decades has shed remarkable light on their origin, biological functions and role in disease. During hepatic injury, they fulfill manifold functions in connective tissue remodeling and wound healing, but overshooting activity of MFB on the other side induces fibrosis and cirrhosis. The present e-book "Liver myofibroblasts" contains 9 articles providing comprehensive information on "hot topics" of MFB. In our opening editorial we provide a short overview of the origin of MFB and their relevance in extracellular matrix formation which is the hallmark of hepatic fibrosis. Thereafter, leading experts in the field share their current perspectives on special topics of (i) MFB in development and disease, ii) their role in hepatic fibrogenesis, and (iii) promising therapies and targets that are suitable to interfere with hepatic fibrosis.

Modeling information structure in a cross-linguistic perspective

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Book Series: Topics at the Grammar-Discourse Interface ISBN: 9783946234906 9783944675978 9783946234647 Year: Pages: 329 DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.818365 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-13 11:01:52
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This study makes substantial contributions to both the theoretical and computational treatment of information structure, with a specific focus on creating natural language processing applications such as multilingual machine translation systems. The present study first provides cross-linguistic findings in regards to information structure meanings and markings. Building upon such findings, the current model represents information structure within the HPSG/MRS framework using Individual Constraints. The primary goal of the present study is to create a multilingual grammar model of information structure for the LinGO Grammar Matrix system. The present study explores the construction of a grammar library for creating customized grammar incorporating information structure and illustrates how the information structure-based model improves performance of transfer-based machine translation.

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