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Neurophysiology in Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199303 Year: Pages: 106 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-930-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia are the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Since the number of individuals with AD and dementia is expected to increase considerably in the near future, reliable treatment and diagnosis are critical. EEG and neurophysiological technique could be used as a cost-effective screening tool for early detection and diagnosis in the Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) stage. The aim in neurophysiology research is to develop signal processing methods that improve the specificity for diagnosing dementia; we wish to discover signal features that not only significantly differ in AD patients, but also allow us to reliably separate AD patients and control subjects. This approach is valuable for clinical purposes (as diagnostic tool for dementia), and it also more fundamentally contributes to a better understanding of brain dynamics of MCI patients. Finally, the development of neurophysiological biomarker could be useful in monitoring pharmacological treatments. The main focus of this special issue will be on the most recent developments and ideas in the field of EEG and neurophysiology which will enable us to extract features that improve the specificity for diagnosing AD and dementia.

Understanding the Role of Time-Dimension in the Brain Information Processing

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451494 Year: Pages: 135 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-149-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Optimized interaction of the brain with environment requires the four-dimensional representation of space-time in the neuronal circuits. Information processing is an important part of this interaction, which is critically dependent on time-dimension. Information processing has played an important role in the evolution of mammals, and has reached a level of critical importance in the lives of primates, particularly the humans. The entanglement of time-dimension with information processing in the brain is not clearly understood at present. Time-dimension in physical world – the environment of an organism – can be represented by the interval of a pendulum swing (the cover page depicts temporal unit with the help of a swinging pendulum). Temporal units in neural processes are represented by regular activities of pacemaker neurons, tonic regular activities of proprioceptors and periodic fluctuations in the excitability of neurons underlying brain oscillations. Moreover, temporal units may be representationally associated with time-bins containing bits of information (see the Editorial), which may be studied to understand the entanglement of time-dimension with neural information processing. The optimized interaction of the brain with environment requires the calibration of neural temporal units. Neural temporal units are calibrated as a result of feedback processes occurring during the interaction of an organism with environment. Understanding the role of time-dimension in the brain information processing requires a multidisciplinary approach, which would include psychophysics, single cell studies and brain recordings. Although this Special Issue has helped us move forward on some fronts, including theoretical understanding of calibration of time-information in neural circuits, and the role of brain oscillations in timing functions and integration of asynchronous sensory information, further advancements are needed by developing correct computational tools to resolve the relationship between dynamic, hierarchical neural oscillatory structures that form during the brain’s interaction with environment.

Physical Metallurgy of High Manganese Steels

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ISBN: 9783039218561 9783039218578 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-857-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Mining and Metallurgy
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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The Special Issue ‘Physical Metallurgy of High Manganese Steels’ addresses the highly fascinating class of manganese-alloyed steels with manganese contents well above 3 mass%. The book gathers manuscripts from internationally recognized researchers with stimulating new ideas and original results. It consists of fifteen original research papers. Seven contributions focus on steels with manganese contents above 12 mass%. These contributions cover fundamental aspects of process-microstrcuture-properties relationships with processes ranging from cold and warm rolling over deep rolling to heat treatment. Novel findings regarding the fatigue and fracture behavior, deformation mechanisms, and computer-aided design are presented. Additionally, the Special Issue also reflects the current trend of reduced Mn content (3-12 mass%) in advanced high strength steels (AHSS). Eight contributions were dedicated to these alloys, which are often referred to as 3rd generation AHSS, medium manganese steels or quenching and partitioning (Q&P/Q+P) steels. The interplay between advanced processing, mainly novel annealing variants, and microstructure evolution has been addressed using computational and experimental approaches. A deeper understanding of strain-rate sensitivity, hydrogen embrittlement, phase transformations, and the consequences for the materials’ properties has been developed. Hence, the topics included are manifold, fundamental-science oriented and, at the same time, relevant to industrial application.

Keywords

medium-manganese steel --- TRIP --- strain-rate sensitivity --- Lüders band --- serrated flow --- in-situ DIC tensile tests --- TWIP steel --- deformation twinning --- serrated flow --- dynamic strain aging --- damage --- fracture --- medium-manganese --- forging --- austenite reversion --- mechanical properties --- microstructure --- D&amp --- P steel --- processing --- microstructure --- phase transformation --- dislocation density --- mechanical properties --- MMn steel X20CrNiMnVN18-5-10 --- V alloying --- corrosion resistance --- precipitations --- ultrafine grains --- high-manganese steels --- high-entropy alloys --- alloy design --- plastic deformation --- annealing --- microstructure --- texture --- mechanical properties --- neutron diffraction --- austenite stability --- medium manganese steel --- double soaking --- localized deformation --- medium-Mn steel --- hot-stamping --- double soaking --- continuous annealing --- quenching and partitioning --- high strength steel --- high manganese steel --- crash box --- lightweight --- multiscale simulation --- high-Mn steels --- twinning induced plasticity --- cold rolling --- recrystallization annealing --- grain refinement --- strengthening --- austenitic high nitrogen steel (HNS) --- cold deformation --- fatigue --- high manganese steel --- warm rolling --- processing --- microstructure --- texture --- mechanical properties --- deformation behavior --- high-manganese steel --- deep rolling --- TWIP --- TRIP --- near surface properties --- residual stresses --- fatigue behavior --- intercritical annealing --- medium manganese steel --- phase field simulation --- medium-Mn steel --- austenite-reversed-transformation --- retained austenite --- hydrogen embrittlement --- ultrafine-grained microstructure --- strain-hardening behavior --- n/a

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