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Hardwooddominated temperate forests (mostly in Eastern North America, Europe, North East Asia) provide valuable renewable timber and numerous ecosystem services. Many of these forests have been subjected to harvesting or conversion to agriculture, sometimes over centuries, that have greatly reduced their former extent and diversity. Natural regeneration following harvesting or during postagricultural succession has often failed to restore these forests adequately. Past harvesting practices and the valuable timber of some species have led to a reduction in their abundance. The loss of apex predators has caused herbivore populations to increase and exert intense browsing pressure on hardwood regeneration, often preventing it. Particularly important are fruit, nut and acorn bearing species, because of their vital role in forest food webs and biodiversity. Restoring hardwood species to natural forests in which they were formerly more abundant will require a number of forest management actions (e.g., resistant hybrids, deer exclosures/protectors, enrichment planting, underplanting, etc.). Similarly, reforesting areas that were once natural forests will also require new silvicultural knowledge. Global warming trends will intensify the need for interventions to maintain the diversity and function of temperate hardwood forests, as well as for increase hardwood reforestation.
forest restoration  Fagaceae species  seed predation  seedling establishment  subtropical hardwoods  native mixed forests  agroforestry  riparian forest restoration  hardwoods  Juglans nigra  Quercus macrocarpa  Pinus strobus  vegetation management  weed control  nitrate  phosphorus  deer abundance  forest diversity  avian guilds  protected landscape area  understorey  unmanaged forest  tree shelter  deer browsing  hardwood restoration  assisted migration  enrichment planting  shelterwood  Pinus strobus L.  Quercus rubra L.  Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.) K. Koch  Juglans nigra L.  Quercus rubra  oak regeneration  Central Hardwood Forest region  shelterwood  deer herbivory  sugar maple  yellow birch  tree vigor  growth efficiency index  tree selection  invasive plants  forest restoration  soil disturbance  herbicide effects  forest regeneration  floristic quality index  species composition  Bioclimatic niche  Durango  Mexican tree species  MaxEnt  nonparametric correlation  forest restoration  wildfire  biological diversity  cultural diversity  ecosystem services  monitoring  indicators  inventory  Native Americans  nontimber forest products  tree plantation  abandoned agricultural field  predation  competition  tolerance  facilitation  precision restoration
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The Special Issue “Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructured Thin Films” highlights the recent progress in thin film synthesis/modification and characterization. New methods are reviewed for the synthesis and/or modification of thin films based on laser, magnetron, chemical, and other techniques. The obtained thin nanostructures are characterized by complex and complementary techniques. We think that most of proposed methods can be directly applied in production, but some others still need further elaboration for longterm prospective applications in lasers, optics, materials, electronics, informatics, telecommunications, biology, medicine, and probably many other domains. The Guest Editor and the MDPI staff are therefore pleased to offer this Special Issue to interested readers, including graduate and PhD students as well as postdoctoral researchers, but also to the entire community interested in the field of nanomaterials. We share the conviction that this can serve as a useful tool for updating the literature, but also to aid in the conception of new production and/or research programs. There is plenty of room for further dedicated R&D advances based on new instruments and materials under development.
AlGaN  nanopatterned sapphire substrate  hydride vapor phase epitaxy  stress  transmission electron microscopy  copper nanowires  CuNWs  degradation  encapsulation  PDMS  PMMA  solutionbased  transparent electrode  photonic crystal fiber  demultiplexer  dense wavelength division multiplexing  lithium niobate  waveguide  photonic integrated circuit  propagation loss  optical lithography  chemomechanical polishing  gold thin film  nonlinear absorption  nonlinear refraction  transient absorption  nanoparticles  highorder harmonics  electroluminescence  nanolaminate  Al2O3  Tm2O3  atomic layer deposition  germanium  DLC  doped biomaterials  pulsed laser deposition  reactive oxygen species  apoptosis  cytotoxicity  titanium film  interlayer  cohesion  residual stress  nanoindenter  nanocrystal  CdTe  Cudoped  ZnTe  solar cells  solution processed  pulsed laser deposition  chalcogenide thin films  Raman spectroscopy  spectroscopic ellipsometry  noble metal nanoparticles  pulsed laser ablation  surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy  antiepileptic drugs  Zn2+ substituted CollCaPs biomimetic layers  MAPLE  spin coating  dyesensitized solar cells  photovoltaic conversion efficiency  TiO2 thin films  pulsed laser deposition  DLC biofunctionality  silicon doping  diffusion barrier  biocompatibility  proliferation improvement  endothelial cells  ZnO nanofilms  SHG  Ga doping  polarization angle  Cu2MgxZn1?xSnS4  thin films  photoelectric performance  sol–gel  sulfuration treatment  solar cell  nanomaterial  zinc oxide  barium titanate  composite  ethylene vinyl acetate  elastic modulus  toughness  flexural rigidity  radiopacity  piezoelectricity  laser surface texturing  laserinduced periodic surface structures  LIPSS  silicon  PTFE  friction  n/a
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Researches and investigations involving the theory and applications of integral transforms and operational calculus are remarkably widespread in many diverse areas of the mathematical, physical, chemical, engineering and statistical sciences.
highly oscillatory  convolution quadrature rule  volterra integral equation  Bessel kernel  convergence  higher order Schwarzian derivatives  Janowski starlike function  Janowski convex function  bound on derivatives  tangent numbers  tangent polynomials  Carlitztype qtangent numbers  Carlitztype qtangent polynomials  (p,q)analogue of tangent numbers and polynomials  (p,q)analogue of tangent zeta function  symmetric identities  zeros  Lommel functions  univalent functions  starlike functions  convex functions  inclusion relationships  analytic function  Hankel determinant  exponential function  upper bound  nonlinear boundary value problems  fractionalorder differential equations  RiemannStieltjes functional integral  LiouvilleCaputo fractional derivative  infinitepoint boundary conditions  advanced and deviated arguments  existence of at least one solution  Fredholm integral equation  Schauder fixed point theorem  Hölder condition  generalized Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equation  modified Kudryashov method  exact solutions  Maple graphs  analytic function  Hadamard product (convolution)  partial sum  Srivastava–Tomovski generalization of Mittag–Leffler function  subordination  differential equation  differential inclusion  Liouville–Caputotype fractional derivative  fractional integral  existence  fixed point  Bernoulli spiral  Grandi curves  Chebyshev polynomials  pseudoChebyshev polynomials  orthogonality property  symmetric  encryption  password  hash  cryptography  PBKDF  q–Bleimann–Butzer–Hahn operators  (p,q)integers  (p,q)Bernstein operators  (p,q)Bleimann–Butzer–Hahn operators  modulus of continuity  rate of approximation  Kfunctional  HurwitzLerch zeta function  generalized functions  analytic number theory  ?generalized HurwitzLerch zeta functions  derivative properties  series representation  basic hypergeometric functions  generating functions  qpolynomials  analytic functions  Mittag–Leffler functions  starlike functions  convex functions  Hardy space  vibrating string equation  initial conditions  spectral decomposition  regular solution  the uniqueness of the solution  the existence of a solution  analytic  ?convex function  starlike function  stronglystarlike function  subordination  q Sheffer–Appell polynomials  generating relations  determinant definition  recurrence relation  q Hermite–Bernoulli polynomials  q Hermite–Euler polynomials  q Hermite–Genocchi polynomials  Volterra integral equations  highly oscillatory Bessel kernel  Hermite interpolation  direct Hermite collocation method  piecewise Hermite collocation method  differential operator  qhypergeometric functions  meromorphic function  Mittag–Leffler function  Hadamard product  differential subordination  starlike functions  Bell numbers  radius estimate  (p, q)integers  Dunkl analogue  generating functions  generalization of exponential function  Szász operator  modulus of continuity  function spaces and their duals  distributions  tempered distributions  Schwartz testing function space  generalized functions  distribution space  wavelet transform of generalized functions  Fourier transform  analytic function  subordination  Dziok–Srivastava operator  nonlinear boundary value problem  nonlocal  multipoint  multistrip  existence  Ulam stability  functions of bounded boundary and bounded radius rotations  subordination  functions with positive real part  uniformly starlike and convex functions  analytic functions  univalent functions  starlike and qstarlike functions  qderivative (or qdifference) operator  sufficient conditions  distortion theorems  Janowski functions  analytic number theory  ?generalized Hurwitz–Lerch zeta functions  derivative properties  recurrence relations  integral representations  Mellin transform  natural transform  Adomian decomposition method  Caputo fractional derivative  generalized mittagleffler function  analytic functions  Hadamard product  starlike functions  qderivative (or qdifference) operator  Hankel determinant  qstarlike functions  fuzzy volterra integrodifferential equations  fuzzy general linear method  fuzzy differential equations  generalized Hukuhara differentiability  spectrum symmetry  DCT  MFCC  audio features  anuran calls  analytic functions  convex functions  starlike functions  strongly convex functions  strongly starlike functions  uniformly convex functions  Struve functions  truncatedexponential polynomials  monomiality principle  generating functions  Apostoltype polynomials and Apostoltype numbers  Bernoulli, Euler and Genocchi polynomials  Bernoulli, Euler, and Genocchi numbers  operational methods  summation formulas  symmetric identities  Euler numbers and polynomials  qEuler numbers and polynomials  HurwitzEuler eta function  multiple HurwitzEuler eta function  higher order qEuler numbers and polynomials  (p, q)Euler numbers and polynomials of higher order  symmetric identities  symmetry of the zero
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