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Alternatives to Antimicrobial Growth Promoters and Their Impact in Gut Microbiota, Health and Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453757 Year: Pages: 92 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-375-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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In the context of disease pathogenesis, it has been observed that after inadequate administration of antibiotics, animals become more susceptible to intestinal colonization and organ invasion by enteropathogens, these could be related to changes caused in the gastrointestinal microbial community. Therefore, we must reconsider the negative consequences that disruption of the microbiome has in the biology of metazoans (dysbacteriosis). Alternations of the intestinal microbiota composition in animals can be caused by multiple factors, including the misuse of antibiotics, having as a result a negative impact on the development and function of the immune, endocrine, nervous, and digestive systems. For this reason, social concerns regarding the development of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms have resulted in an urgent necessity to find feasible alternatives to maintain animal health and performance without the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP), in order to sustain livestock production as an economically viable source of food for human consumption. Hence, research about AGP alternatives such as probiotics, prebiotics, phytochemicals, organic acids, enzymes, and vaccines has become a priority for many scientists around the world.

Improving Animal Welfare through Genetic Selection

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198832 Year: Pages: 106 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-883-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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In livestock species, breeding goals are aimed primarily at improvement of production traits. However, there are a number of examples where selection for high production efficiency has resulted in reduced welfare through unfavorable outcomes in health and fitness characteristics. These effects raise questions about what is ethically acceptable in animal breeding. Welfare problems may be experienced when physiological balance is disturbed by genetic selection for high production alone, by a mismatch between the environmental challenges and the range of coping responses available to an animal, or from a mismatch between the animal’s needs and their degree of satisfaction. This may be resolved by either improving the environment to support the animal, but also by providing the animal, through genetic selection, with means to adapt to the production environment. The Standing Committee of the European Convention for the Protection of Animals kept for Farming Purposes emphasizes that breeding goals should include health and welfare. The Farm Animal Welfare Council pleas for a greater emphasis in breeding programs on traits associated with good welfare. However, although breeding goals in most farm animal species have been broadened beyond production traits to include functional traits, behavioral traits are rarely included despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. It is the goal of the present Research Topic to bring together experimental and theoretical research focusing on the genetics of welfare traits and the possibility to improve animal welfare through selection. This topic presents an overview of the relationship between selection for high production and livestock robustness, examples of improving robustness through the introduction of novel traits in livestock breeding, and a discussion on selection methods to address welfare issues. The discussion on sustainability of breeding practices is very alive today and will remain to be an important part of the debate in the future.

Sociologie des changements de pratiques en agriculture

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ISBN: 9782759230754 Year: DOI: 10.35690/978-2-7592-3075-4 Language: French
Publisher: éditions Quae
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-10 11:21:07
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Cet ouvrage rend compte de la façon dont les dynamiques de changements de pratiques des agriculteurs sont liées à la structure des réseaux de dialogues professionnels dans lesquels ils sont insérés. Développant une analyse des réseaux sociaux, il montre comment, du fait de certaines caractéristiques de ces réseaux, les agriculteurs se trouvent socialement plus ou moins bien armés pour mettre en œuvre de nouvelles pratiques plus respectueuses de l’environnement.

Beten, Impfen, Sammeln - Zur Viehseuchen- und Schädlingsbekämpfung in der Frühen Neuzeit Graduiertenkolleg Interdisziplinäre Umweltgeschichte

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ISBN: 9783938616956 Year: DOI: 10.17875/gup2007-482 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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The collection covers the presentations held at the workshop on „Challenge: Securing Resources - Animal Diseases and Pest Control in the 18th and 19 Century“ held in Goettingen on 21 and 22 June 2006 by the graduate school „Interdisciplinary Environmental History, Natual Environment and Society in Central Europe“, which is funded by the German Research Foundation, and operative since July 1 2004 at the Georg-August University in Goettingen.

Environmentally Sustainable Livestock Production

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ISBN: 9783038975526 / 9783038975533 Year: Pages: 290 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-553-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-25 10:30:03
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This book looks at key research covering a wide range of aspects of environmental sustainability and the mitigation of environmental impacts of livestock production, including emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide), nitrogen and phosphorus excretion, ammonia emissions, land use and land management, and use of energy and other resources. All the globally most important livestock species (beef and dairy cattle, pigs, broiler chicken and laying hens) are covered in the book. The mitigation methods assessed in the papers include general system changes, changes in feeding, improvement of animal health, and new technologies of manure management. The scope of the papers included in this book ranges from farm level mitigation methods to national level system changes. This book also addresses methodological development in assessing the environmental sustainability of the livestock production chains, including holistic methods, such as environmental and social life cycle assessment (LCA) and other modeling approaches.

Quality and Production of Forage

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ISBN: 9783039216741 / 9783039216758 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-675-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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The book ""Quality and Production of Forage"" is intended to keep readers updatedon the developments occurring in this field. As it is apparent that livestockanimals are important throughout the world because of the meat, milk and eggthey produce, knowledge about the forages available to animals must also beconsidered for increased production, quality and efficiency. This book providesinformation that readers will find considerably invaluable about forage feeds, suchas grass, legumes, and straw. The book is composed of ten papers, focusing on awide range of research activities and topics that feature the following concepts offorage: the effect of conservation method on forage protein value; Microbial thecomposition and mycotoxin content in forage; genetic diversity of forages; timelysowing to maximize yield for both grain and biomass; ensiling treatments onforage quality; the qualitative characteristics of different accessions of new foragespecies; forage policy influencing feed costs; feeding forage on animal health;high-protein tropical forages as alternative sources for poultry; impact of foragesin poultry diet and significance of forages in sustainable poultry productionsystems. This book will be an invaluable reference for students and professionalsin agricultural science and grassland and animal husbandry researches.

One Health and Zoonoses

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ISBN: 9783039212958 / 9783039212965 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-296-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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The One Health concept recognizes that the health of humans, animals, and their ecosystems are interconnected, and that a coordinated, collaborative, multidisciplinary, and cross-sectoral approach is necessary to fully understand and respond to potential or existing risks that originate at the animal–human–ecosystems interfaces. Thus, the One Health concept represents a holistic vision for addressing some of the complex challenges that threaten human and animal health, food safety, and the environments in which diseases flourish. There are many examples showing how the health of humans is related to the health of animals and the environment. Diseases shared between humans and animals are zoonoses. Some zoonoses have been known for many years, whereas others have emerged suddenly and unexpectedly. Over 70% of all new emerging diseases over the past few decades have been zoonoses that have emerged from wildlife, most often from bats, rodents, or birds. Examples of zoonoses are many and varied, ranging from rabies to bovine tuberculosis, and from Japanese encephalitis to SARS. Clearly, a One Health approach is essential for understanding their ecology, and for outbreak response and the development of control strategies. However, the One Health concept and approach is much broader than zoonoses; it extends to including antimicrobial resistance, food safety, and environmental health and, consequently, impacts on global health security, economic wellbeing, and international trade. It is this breadth of One Health that connects the papers in this Special Issue.

Open-Source Electronics Platforms

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ISBN: 9783038979722 / 9783038979739 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-973-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Open-source electronics are becoming very popular, and are integrated with our daily educational and developmental activities. At present, the use open-source electronics for teaching science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has become a global trend. Off-the-shelf embedded electronics such as Arduino- and Raspberry-compatible modules have been widely used for various applications, from do-it-yourself (DIY) to industrial projects. In addition to the growth of open-source software platforms, open-source electronics play an important role in narrowing the gap between prototyping and product development. Indeed, the technological and social impacts of open-source electronics in teaching, research, and innovation have been widely recognized.

Keywords

human-computer interface (HCI) --- electrooculogram (EOG) --- electromyogram (EMG) --- modified sliding window algorithm --- piecewise linear approximation (PLA) --- support vector regression --- eye tracking --- blockchain --- ontology --- context --- cyber-physical systems --- robotics --- interaction --- coalition --- individual management of livestock --- momentum data sensing --- remote sensing platform --- sensor networks --- technology convergence --- industry 4.0 --- distributed measurement systems --- automation networks --- node-RED --- cloud computing --- OPC UA --- hardware trojan taxonomy --- thermal imaging --- side channel analysis --- infrared --- FPGA --- Internet of Things --- wireless sensor networks --- Cloud of Things --- virtual sensor --- sensor detection --- smart cities --- Internet of Things --- Raspberry Pi --- BeagleBoard --- Arduino --- Internet of Things --- open hardware --- smart farming --- teaching robotics --- science teaching --- STEM --- robotic tool --- Python --- Raspberry Pi --- PiCamera --- vision system --- service learning --- robotics --- open platform --- automated vehicle --- EPICS --- open-source platform --- visual algorithms --- digital signal controllers --- embedded systems education --- dsPIC --- Java --- smart converter --- maximum power point tracking (MPPT) --- photovoltaic (PV) system --- Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) --- Digital Signal Processor (DSP) --- interleaved --- DC/DC converter --- distributed energy resource --- n/a

Human and Animal Sensitivity: How Stock-People and Consumer Perception Can Affect Animal Welfare

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ISBN: 9783039212613 / 9783039212620 Year: Pages: 234 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-262-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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This book presents cross-discipline studies covering aspects ranging from animal science to social/consumer sciences and psychology, with the aim to collect and disseminate information promoting the continuous enhancement of animal welfare by improving stakeholders’ perception of animal welfare. Although animal welfare is about how the animals perceive the surrounding environment, the actual welfare of the animals is dependent on how the stakeholders perceive and weigh animal welfare. The stakeholders can, either directly (i.e., through stock-people interaction with the animals) or indirectly (e.g., when retailers and consumers are willing to pay more for high welfare animal-based products), affect the way animals are kept and handled.

Keywords

veterinary student --- animal ethics --- pain perception --- animal --- animal welfare --- Animal welfare --- husbandry practices --- lambs --- pain --- sheep farmers --- perception --- agreement --- aggression --- animal welfare --- desensitization --- perception --- pigs --- animal welfare --- young adult --- animal attitudes --- children --- farm animals --- animal welfare --- education --- technology --- animal welfare --- Asia --- knowledge --- slaughter --- transport --- training --- animal welfare --- benefit --- profit --- human health --- Asia --- livestock --- farmer perception --- citizen perception --- qualitative research --- free elicitation narrative interviews --- animal welfare --- consumer --- willingness to pay --- pig --- castration --- immunocastration --- information --- survey --- human-animal relationship --- fear --- laying hen --- stockpeople attitudes --- stockperson behaviour --- egg farm --- albumen corticosterone --- welfare --- animal welfare --- stakeholder perception --- text mining --- horse --- donkey --- goat --- sheep --- turkey --- farm animal welfare (FAW) --- willingness to pay --- food safety concerns --- ethical concerns --- perceived consumer effectiveness --- broiler --- dairy buffalo --- human-animal relationship --- animal behavior --- test-retest reliability --- avoidance distance --- milk production --- animal welfare --- animal welfare --- stunning --- religious slaughter --- veterinary students --- Halal meat --- racehorse welfare --- staff shortages --- horse–human relationship --- standards of care --- employee relations --- consumer demand --- economics --- farm animal welfare --- producer perspective

Remote Sensing of Above Ground Biomass

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ISBN: 9783039212095 / 9783039212101 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-210-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Above ground biomass has been listed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change as one of the five most prominent, visible, and dynamic terrestrial carbon pools. The increased awareness of the impacts of climate change has seen a burgeoning need to consistently assess carbon stocks to combat carbon sequestration. An accurate estimation of carbon stocks and an understanding of the carbon sources and sinks can aid the improvement and accuracy of carbon flux models, an important pre-requisite of climate change impact projections. Based on 15 research topics, this book demonstrates the role of remote sensing in quantifying above ground biomass (forest, grass, woodlands) across varying spatial and temporal scales. The innovative application areas of the book include algorithm development and implementation, accuracy assessment, scaling issues (local–regional–global biomass mapping), and the integration of microwaves (i.e. LiDAR), along with optical sensors, forest biomass mapping, rangeland productivity and abundance (grass biomass, density, cover), bush encroachment biomass, and seasonal and long-term biomass monitoring.

Keywords

multi-angle remote sensing --- forest structure information --- vegetation indices --- forest biomass --- Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Factor --- biomass --- yield --- AquaCrop model --- spectral index --- particle swarm optimization --- winter wheat --- TerraSAR-X --- Landsat --- pasture biomass --- Wambiana grazing trial --- foliage projective cover --- fractional vegetation cover --- ALOS2 --- mixed forest --- biomass --- lidar --- NDVI --- grass biomass --- SPLSR --- vegetation indices --- estimation accuracy --- pasture biomass --- ground-based remote sensing --- ultrasonic sensor --- field spectrometry --- sensor fusion --- short grass --- alpine grassland conservation --- anthropogenic disturbance --- ecological policies --- climate change --- grazing exclusion --- grazing management --- regional sustainability --- rice --- biomass --- dry matter index --- chlorophyll index --- CIRed-edge --- NDLMA --- forest above ground biomass (AGB) --- random forest --- mapping --- alpine meadow grassland --- above-ground biomass --- inversion model --- error analysis --- applicability evaluation --- Land Surface Phenology --- wetlands --- above ground biomass --- NDVI --- MODIS time series --- food security --- Sahel --- Niger --- rangeland productivity --- livestock --- MODIS --- NDVI --- aboveground biomass --- Atriplex nummularia --- carbon mitigation --- carbon inventory --- forage crops --- remote sensing --- vegetation index --- stem volume --- dry biomass --- conifer --- broadleaves --- light detection and ranging (LiDAR) --- regression analysis --- correlation coefficient --- n/a

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