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Bacterial pathogens in the non-clinical environment

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195589 Year: Pages: 100 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-558-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Abstract

The transmission route used by many bacterial pathogens of clinical importance includes a step outside the host; thereafter refer to as the non-clinical environment (NCE). Obvious examples include foodborne and waterborne pathogens and also pathogens that are transmitted by hands or aerosols. In the NCE, pathogens have to cope with the presence of toxic compounds, sub-optimal temperature, starvation, presence of competitors and predators. Adaptation of bacterial pathogens to such stresses affects their interaction with the host. This Research Topic presents important concept to understand the life of bacterial pathogens in the NCE and provides the reader with an overview of the strategies used by bacterial pathogens to survive and replicate outside the host.

Biology and Pathogenesis of Legionella

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456611 Year: Pages: 181 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-661-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Legionella pneumophila was first isolated as the causative agent of a deadly infectious pneumonia at a convention of the American Legion forty years ago. Since then, Legionnaires’ disease continues to be a significant public health concern. Today, our understanding of the Legionella genus, comprising environmental bacteria and opportunistic human pathogens, has dramatically increased. The study of how pathogenic Legionella interact with host cells, both protozoan and mammalian, has not only taught us about host-pathogen interactions but has revealed novel and unexpected insights into human cell biology and immunology. The capacity of pathogenic Legionella to commandeer cellular processes such as eukaryotic vesicular trafficking to establish an ER-like replicative niche, reflects the exquisite ability of this pathogen to manipulate eukaryotic cell biology in order to replicate in an intracellular compartment. This requires the specific and targeted action of a cohort of translocated bacterial effector proteins. In addition, we have learnt much about cell autonomous innate immune sensing of intracellular bacteria through the inability of L. pneumophila to avoid intracellular mammalian defense mechanisms.Now, in the age of large-scale comparative “omics”, it is clear that different Legionella species utilize different cohorts of effectors to replicate inside eukaryotic cells. While we understand some of the strategies employed by L. pneumophila and L. longbeachae to replicate within eukaryotic cells, there is still much to learn about many aspects of the Legionella life cycle.This Research Topic highlights the latest findings regarding the biology of Legionella species, their interactions with eukaryotic host cells, and how the application of various technologies has increased our understanding of this important pathogen.

Microbial Modulation of Host Apoptosis and Pyroptosis

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192809 Year: Pages: 109 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-280-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Infectious disease is the result of an interactive relationship between a microbial pathogen and its host. In this interaction both the host and the pathogen attempt to manipulate each other using a complex network to maximize their respective survival probabilities. Programmed host cell death is a direct outcome of host-pathogen interaction and may benefit host or pathogen depending on microbial pathogenesis. Apoptosis and pyroptosis are two common programmed cell death types induced by various microbial infections. Apoptosis is non-inflammatory programmed cell death and can be triggered through intrinsic or extrinsic pathways and with or without the contribution of mitochondria. Pyroptosis is an inflammatory cell death and is typically triggered by caspase-1 after its activation by various inflammasomes. However, some non-canonical caspase-1-independent proinflammatory cell death phenomena have been reported. Microbial pathogens are able to modulate host apoptosis and pyroptosis through different triggers and pathways. The promotion and inhibition of host apoptosis and pyroptosis vary and depend on the microbe types, virulence, and phenotypes. For example, virulent pathogens and attenuated vaccine strains may use different pathways to modulate host cell death. Specific microbial genes may be responsible for the modulation of host cell death. Different host cells, including macrophages, dendritic cells, and T cells, can undergo apoptosis and pyroptosis after microbial infections. The pathways of host apoptosis and pyroptosis induced by different microbes may also differ. Different methods can be used to study the interaction between microbes and host cell death system. The articles included in this E-book report the cutting edge findings in the areas of microbial modulation of host apoptosis, pyroptosis and inflammasome.

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