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Enzyme-Mediated Stereoselective Synthesis

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ISBN: 9783039219360 9783039219377 Year: Pages: 116 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-937-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General) --- Inorganic Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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This book is a collection of studies focused on the exploitation of enzyme stereoselectivity for the synthesis of relevant chemicals, such as innovative materials, chiral building blocks, natural products, and flavor and fragrance compounds. Different catalytic approaches are reported. The first study describes a resolution-based process for the stereoselective synthesis of the enantiomeric forms of the flavor compound linaloyl oxide, whereas other enantiomeric enriched aroma compounds were obtained through a novel microbial approach based on solid-state fermentation. Two relevant works exploit the potential of the biocatalyzed reduction reactions. The first of these contributions describes the enantioselective synthesis of ?-nitroalcohols by enzyme-mediated reduction of ?-nitroketones, whereas a second contribution reports the preparation of chiral 1,4-diaryl-1,4-diols through ADH-catalyzed bioreduction of the corresponding diketones. Concerning enantioenriched alcohol derivatives, natural hydroxy fatty acids are prepared by means of the biocatalytic hydration reaction of natural fatty acids using the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus as a whole-cell biocatalyst. Further studies describe the use of modified pullulan polysaccharide for lipase immobilization and the recent advances in synthetic applications of ?-transaminases for the production of chiral amines.

Probiotics and Prebiotics in Pediatrics

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ISBN: 9783038979500 9783038979517 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-951-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The goal of this Special Issue, “Probiotics and Prebiotics in Pediatrics”, is to focus on the importance of pediatric nutrition with probiotics and prebiotics to improve gastrointestinal health in newborn, infants, and children.Specifically, the aim is to clarify if probiotics and prebiotics can influence gut microbiota composition and host-interaction favoring human health and preventing diseases.This new information will provide health care professionals with a widespread, clear and update evidence on probiotics and prebiotics and intestinal gut microbiota in pediatric care.

Keywords

acute diarrhea --- children --- Bacillus clausii --- efficacy --- randomized controlled trials --- breast feeding --- formula feeding --- human milk oligosaccharide --- 2?-fucosyllactose --- Lacto-N-neotetraose --- microbiota --- bifidobacteria --- acute gastroenteritis --- children --- Lactobacillus reuteri --- oral rehydration solution --- probiotics --- zinc --- probiotics --- allergy --- infants --- pediatrics --- human milk oligosaccharides --- human milk --- infant formula --- necrotizing enterocolitis --- preterm infant --- preterm infant --- probiotic --- human milk --- probiotic strain --- safety --- fecal microbiota --- protein hydrolyzed formulas --- cow’s milk protein --- tolerance acquisition --- non-IgE mediated allergy --- microbiome --- intestinal microbiota --- microbial programming --- nutritional programming --- allergy --- prevention --- neonatal --- preterm --- breast milk --- oligosaccharides --- diversity --- necrotizing enterocolitis --- sepsis --- growth --- constipation --- prebiotic --- intestinal transit time --- infant --- Bifidobacterium --- Lactobacillus --- probiotics --- asthma --- Childhood Asthma Control Test --- peak expiratory flow rate --- immunoglobulin E --- “Probiotics”[Mesh] --- “Pregnancy”[Mesh] --- “Infant, Newborn”[Mesh] --- Bifidobacterium breve --- probiotics --- paediatrics --- therapeutic microbiology --- celiac disease --- iron deficiency anemia --- gluten-free diet --- inulin --- prebiotics --- iron absorption --- hepcidin --- probiotics --- microbiota --- celiac disease --- gluten free diet --- probiotics --- functional gastrointestinal disorders --- functional abdominal pain disorders --- functional constipation --- infantile colic --- infant --- colic --- lactobacilli --- n/a --- fecal microbiota --- protein hydrolyzed formulas --- cow’s milk protein --- tolerance acquisition --- non-IgE mediated allergy --- n/a

Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine

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ISBN: 9783038977827 9783038977834 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-783-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several fungal species. They can contaminate human food and animal feed, and have been a threat for thousands of years. The gastrointestinal tract is the first target when ingesting mycotoxin-contaminated food or feed. As unlikely as it sounds, the investigations concerning the effects of mycotoxins on the intestine are still in their early stages. This book gathers the most recent advances related to the characterization of the intestinal toxicity of mycotoxins. Substantial data assembled on the damage caused to a number of histological structures and functions of the intestine remove any remaining doubt about this organ being a primary target for the toxicity of mycotoxins. An interesting overview of the detrimental effects of mycotoxins on the gut-hosted microbiota—now regarded as a fully-fledged organ associated with the gut—is also given. Finally, outstanding contributions in this book address questions relating to the suitability of current regulations to protect against alterations of the intestine, and to the efficacy assessment of new detoxification strategies using the intestinal toxicity of mycotoxins as a relevant endpoint.

Keywords

mice --- aflatoxin B1 --- intestinal bacterial flora --- response --- Clostridium sp. WJ06 --- deoxynivalenol --- pig --- intestinal morphology --- microbial diversity --- aflatoxin M1 --- ochratoxin A --- intestinal epithelial cells --- tight junction --- permeability --- ileum --- jejunum --- deoxynivalenol --- piglet --- contaminated feed --- tight junction --- aflatoxin B1 --- small intestine --- histopathological lesions --- ultrastructural changes --- toll-like receptors --- T-2 toxin --- enteric nervous system --- pig --- vasoactive intestinal polypeptide --- mycotoxins --- zearalenone --- deoxynivalenol --- histology --- ultrastructure --- large intestine --- pig --- Claviceps --- liver --- digestive tract --- mycotoxin --- sclerotia --- ergot alkaloids --- toxicity --- deoxynivalenol --- Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii CNCM I-1079 --- intestine --- transcriptome --- inflammation --- oxidative stress --- lipid metabolism --- fumonisin --- microbiota --- pigs --- MiSeq 16S rDNA sequencing --- intestinal microbiota --- hydrogen-rich water --- lactulose --- Fusarium mycotoxins --- piglets --- functional oligosaccharides --- mycotoxins --- swine --- explant technique --- intestinal morphology --- goblet cells --- deoxynivalenol --- zearalenone --- pig --- colon microbiota --- Lactobacillus --- detoxification --- zearalenone --- doses --- caecal water --- genotoxicity --- pre-pubertal gilts --- atlantic salmon --- deoxynivalenol --- feed --- intestine --- PCR --- proliferating cell nuclear antigen --- suppressor of cytokine signaling --- tight junctions --- Zearalenone --- N-acetylcysteine --- SIEC02 cells --- Mitochondrial apoptosis --- n/a

Biogenic Amines on Food Safety

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ISBN: 9783039210541 9783039210558 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-055-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Biogenic amines have been known for some time. These compounds are found in varying concentrations in a wide range of foods (fish, cheese, meat, wine, beer, vegetables, etc.) and their formations are influenced by different factors associated to those foods (composition, additives, ingredients, storage, microorganism, packaging, handing, conservation, etc.). The intake of foods containing high concentrations of biogenic amines can present a health hazard. Additionally, they have been used to establish indexes in various foods in order to signal the degree of freshness and/or deterioration of food. Nowadays, there has been an increase in the number of food poisoning episodes in consumers associated with the presence of these biogenic amines, mainly associated with histamines. Food safety is one of the main concerns of the consumer and safety agencies of different countries (EFSA, FDA, FSCJ, etc.), which have, as one of their main objectives, to control these biogenic amines, principally histamine, to assure a high level of food safety.Therefore, it is necessary to deepen our understanding of the formation, monitoring and reduction of biogenic amines during the development, processing and storage of food, even the effect of biogenic amines in consumers after digestion of foods with different levels of these compounds.With this aim, we are preparing a Special Issue on the topic of ""Biogenic Amines in Food Safety"", and we invite researchers to contribute original and unpublished research articles and reviews articles that involve studies of biogenic amines in food, which can provide an update to our knowledge of these compounds and their impacts on food quality and food safety.

Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species

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ISBN: 9783039215584 9783039215591 Year: Pages: 218 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-559-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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From the beginning of this century, non-Saccharomyces yeasts have taken increased relevance in wine processing. Several biotechnological companies now produce non-Saccharomyces yeasts at an industrial level to improve aroma or flavor, stabilize wine, produce biological acidification, or conversely metabolize malic acid. Species like Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Kloeckera apiculata, Lachancea thermotolerans, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and several others are common due to the technological applications they have in sensory quality but also in wine ageing and stabilization. Moreover, spoilage non-Saccharomyces yeasts like Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Saccharomycodes ludwigii, and Zygosacharomyces bailii are becoming important because of the alterations they are able to produce in high-quality wines. New strategies to control these defective yeasts have been developed to control them without affecting sensory quality. The knowledge of the physiology, ecology, biochemistry, and metabolomics of these yeasts can help to better use them in controlling traditional problems such as low fermentative power, excessive volatile acidity, low implantation under enological conditions, and sensibility to antimicrobial compounds like sulfites traditionally used in wine processing. This Special Issue intends to compile current research and revised information on non-Saccharomyces yeasts with enological applications to facilitate the use and the understanding of this biotechnological tool. In 1 year this SI has globally more than 15kdownloads and produced more than 30 citations.

Keywords

Lachancea thermotolerans --- Kluyveromyces thermotolerans --- acidification --- wines --- sequential fermentations --- non-Saccharomyces --- non-Saccharomyces yeasts --- Wickerhamomyces anomalus --- Pichia anomala --- enzymes --- glycosidases --- acetate esters --- biocontrol --- mixed starters --- wine --- wine --- Zygosaccharomyces rouxii --- re-fermentation --- spoilage-control --- non-Saccharomyces --- high-ethanol --- Schizosaccharomyces pombe --- oenological uses --- maloalcoholic fermentation --- stable pigments --- wine safety --- non-Saccharomyces yeast --- Saccharomycodes ludwigii --- S. ludwigii --- spoilage yeasts’ control --- ageing-on-lees --- non-Saccharomyces --- yeast --- sparkling wine --- nitrogen --- aroma --- Candida stellata --- ecology --- taxonomy --- metabolism --- processing foods --- co-fermentation --- non-Saccharomyces --- genome --- aroma compounds --- anthocyanin --- mixed cultures fermentation --- flavor complexity --- Aureobasidium pullulans --- biotechnological applications --- viticulture --- enzymes --- non-Saccharomyces yeasts --- Torulaspora delbrueckii --- winemaking --- yeast inoculation --- yeast dominance --- wine quality --- genetic improvement --- antimicrobial peptides --- biocontrol --- Brettanomyces bruxellensis --- Candida intermedia --- wine --- off-flavors --- wine acidity --- volatile acidity --- malolactic bacteria --- Lactobacillus plantarum --- Lachancea thermotolerans --- Schizosaccharomyces pombe --- Candida stellate --- Torulaspora delbrueckii --- Zygotorulaspora florentina --- Pichia kudriavzevii --- Stermerella bacillaris --- Metschnikowia pulcherrima --- oenological uses --- enzymes --- stable pigments --- pulcherrimin --- n/a --- n/a

Recent Development of Electrospinning for Drug Delivery

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ISBN: 9783039281404 9783039281411 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-141-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Several promising techniques have been developed to overcome the poor solubility and/or membrane permeability properties of new drug candidates, including different fiber formation methods. Electrospinning is one of the most commonly used spinning techniques for fiber formation, induced by the high voltage applied to the drug-loaded solution. With modifying the characteristics of the solution and the spinning parameters, the functionality-related properties of the formulated fibers can be finely tuned. The fiber properties (i.e., high specific surface area, porosity, and the possibility of controlling the crystalline–amorphous phase transitions of the loaded drugs) enable the improved rate and extent of solubility, causing a rapid onset of absorption. However, the enhanced molecular mobility of the amorphous drugs embedded into the fibers is also responsible for their physical–chemical instability. This Special Issue will address new developments in the area of electrospun nanofibers for drug delivery and wound healing applications, covering recent advantages and future directions in electrospun fiber formulations and scalability. Moreover, it serves to highlight and capture the contemporary progress in electrospinning techniques, with particular attention to the industrial feasibility of developing pharmaceutical dosage forms. All aspects of small molecule or biologics-loaded fibrous dosage forms, focusing on the processability, structures and functions, and stability issues, are included.

Keywords

electrospinning --- gentamicin sulfate --- polylactide-co-polycaprolactone --- drug release kinetics --- tissue engineering --- growth factor --- diabetic --- wound healing --- nanocomposite --- electrospinning --- coaxial spinning --- core-sheath nanofibers --- biomedical --- drug delivery --- electrospinning --- scale-up --- processability --- biopharmaceuticals --- oral dosage form --- grinding --- aceclofenac --- nanofiber --- electrospinning --- scanning electron microscopy --- fourier transform infrared spectroscopy --- differential scanning calorimetry --- nanotechnology --- biotechnology --- probiotics --- Lactobacillus --- Lactococcus --- electrospinning --- nanofibers --- drying --- local delivery --- viability --- antibacterial activity --- bacterial bioreporters --- drug release --- electrospinning --- microfibers --- nanofibers --- UV imaging --- wetting --- in situ drug release --- nanofibers --- electrospinning --- poorly water-soluble drug --- piroxicam --- hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose --- polydextrose --- scanning white light interferometry --- nanotechnology --- nanofibers --- traditional electrospinning --- ultrasound-enhanced electrospinning --- drug delivery system --- haemanthamine --- plant-origin alkaloid --- electrospinning --- amphiphilic nanofibers --- self-assembled liposomes --- physical solid-state properties --- drug release --- electrospinning --- PCL --- gelatin --- clove essential oil --- antibacterial --- biocompatibility --- artificial red blood cells --- electrospinning and electrospray --- pectin --- oligochitosan --- hydrogel --- microcapsules --- electrospinning --- wound dressings --- solvent casting --- 3D printing --- polymeric carrier --- n/a

Mycotoxin Exposure and Related Diseases

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ISBN: 9783039287048 / 9783039287055 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-705-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Mycotoxins are considered the most frequently occurring natural contaminants in human and animal diets. Considering their potential toxic and carcinogenic effects, mycotoxin exposure assessment has particular importance in the context of health risk assessment. The magnitude of a given exposure allows the derivation of the associated risk and the potential for the establishment of a disease. Although food ingestion is considered a major route of human exposure to mycotoxins, other contexts may also result in exposure, such as specific occupational environments where exposure to organic dust also occurs due to the handling of organic materials. Animals could be exposed to mycotoxins through consumption of contaminated feed, subsequently entering in the food chain and thus constituting a source of exposure to humans. Human biomonitoring is considered a new frontier for the establishment of the human internal exposure to mycotoxins. Although several studies have summarized the potential outcomes associated with mycotoxin exposure, major gaps in data remain in recognizing the mycotoxins that are the cause of diseases. This book contributes provides research that supports the anticipation of potential consequences of the exposure of humans and animals to mycotoxins, future risk assessments, and the establishment of preventive measures.

Nutrition in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

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ISBN: 9783039214396 9783039214402 Year: Pages: 370 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-440-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The purpose of this Special Issue “Nutrition in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)” is to increase knowledge regarding the role of dietary composition and effects in IBD, describing the prevalence of malnutrition in IBD and the effect on clinical outcomes, discussing methods of nutrition risk screening and assessment in IBD, and reviewing mechanisms through which diet and dietary components may affect disease severity. The articles focus on the following areas: Dietary Composition/Therapy Interventions in Ulcerative Colitis and effects on outcomes; Dietary Composition/Therapy Interventions in Crohn’s Disease and effects on outcomes; Nutrition Risk Screening and Assessment in IBD; Mechanisms of Diet in the pathogenesis of IBD.

Keywords

body composition --- obesity --- visceral adipose tissue --- fat --- osteoporosis --- osteopenia --- sarcopenia --- inflammatory bowel disease --- Crohn’s disease --- dietary intake --- malnutrition --- Mediterranean diet --- exclusive enteral nutrition --- children --- IBD --- remission --- mucosal cytokines --- dietary protein level --- colitis --- epithelial repair --- mucosa-adherent microbiota --- intestinal inflammation --- inflammatory bowel disease --- epithelial adherens junctions --- bioactive peptides --- synbiotic --- prebiotic --- probiotic --- IBD --- Bacillus spores --- dietary fibre --- sugar cane fibre --- ulcerative colitis --- colon --- high-sulfur foods --- inflammation --- metagenomics --- microbiota --- sulfur reducing --- inflammatory bowel disease --- Crohn --- ulcerative colitis --- diet --- nutrition --- exclusive enteral nutrition --- intestinal epithelial cells --- inflammation --- probiotics --- Lactobacillus acidophilus --- Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis --- vitamin D --- IBD --- Crohn’s disease --- ulcerative colitis --- supplementation --- deficiency --- Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) --- Mediterranean Diet --- Western-style Diet (WSD) --- Nutritional Approach --- vitamin D --- Crohn’s disease --- ulcerative colitis --- faecal calprotectin --- C-reactive protein --- diet --- inflammatory bowel disease --- microbiota --- intestinal barrier --- nutrients --- immunity --- colitis --- food additive --- diet --- emulsifiers --- high salt diet --- inflammatory bowel diseases --- inflammatory bowel disease --- dietary modification --- exclusive enteral nutrition --- lifestyle modification --- Mediterranean diet --- colorectal cancer --- inflammatory bowel disease --- colorectal cancer --- dysplasia --- berries --- chemoprevention --- Inflammatory Bowel Disease --- micronutrients --- vitamin --- mineral --- deficiency --- inflammatory bowel disease --- dietary habits --- food components --- gut microbiota --- immune homeostasis --- epigenetic changes --- inflammatory bowel disease --- malnutrition --- Mediterranean diet --- older age --- diet --- inflammatory bowel disease --- ulcerative colitis --- inflammatory bowel disease --- Westernisation --- genotypes --- nutrient deficiency --- food intolerance --- FODMAPs --- gluten --- fructose --- lactose --- brassica --- mushrooms --- n/a

Nutrition and Eye Health

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039219902 9783039219919 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-991-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Blindness and visual impairment impact significantly on an individual’s physical and mental well-being. Loss of vision is a global health problem, with approximately 250 million of the world’s population currently living with vision loss, of which 36 million are classified as blind. Visual impairment is more frequent in the elderly, with cataract and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) accounting for over 50% of cases globally. Oxidative stress has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of both conditions, and consequently the role of nutritional factors, in particular carotenoids and micronutrient antioxidants, have been investigated as possible preventative or therapeutic strategies. Dry eye syndrome (DES) is one of the most common ophthalmic conditions in the world. DES occurs where the eye does not produce enough tears and/or the tears evaporate too quicklyleading to discomfort and varying degrees of visual disturbance. There has recently been a great deal of interest in the potential for oral or topical supplementation with essential fatty acids (EFAs), specifically omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, as an adjunct to conventional treatments for DES. The objective of this Special Issue on ‘Nutrition and Eye Health’ is to publish papers describing the role of nutrition in maintaining eye health and the use of nutritional interventions to prevent or treat ocular disease. A particular (but not exclusive) emphasis will be on papers (reviews and/or clinical or experimental studies) relating to cataract, AMD and DES.

Keywords

lutein --- RR-zeaxanthin --- mesozeaxanthin (RS zeaxanthin) --- light damage --- photoreceptor degeneration --- oxidative stress --- endoplasmic reticulum stress --- electroretinography --- advanced glycation end products --- chyrsin --- diabetic retinopathy --- endoplasmic reticulum --- retinal pigment epithelium --- visual cycle --- cataract --- phytoconstituents --- lens --- preclinical models --- drug discovery --- age-related macular degeneration --- gut-retina axis --- gut microbiota --- dietary habits --- micronutrients --- fish oil --- omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids --- personalised medicine --- Lactobacillus paracasei KW3110 --- retina --- light --- macrophage --- saffron --- Crocus Sativus L. --- crocin --- crocetin --- supplements --- anti-oxidant --- anti-inflammatory --- AMD --- diabetes --- glaucoma --- retina --- oxidative stress --- inflammation --- microvascular lesions --- neoangiogenesis --- polyphenols --- flavonoids --- carotenoids --- saponins --- rosmarinic acid --- sinapic acid --- lenses --- estrogen-deficient rats --- oxidative stress --- reduced glutathione --- omega-3 --- fatty acid --- diet --- dietary assessment --- clinical survey --- eye disease --- dry eye --- age-related macular degeneration --- food frequency questionnaire --- CODS --- clinical practice guidelines --- systematic reviews --- age-related macular degeneration --- nutritional supplements --- diet --- nutrition --- AGREE II --- Cucurbita argyrosperma --- corneal chemical burn --- angiogenesis --- corneal neovascularization (CNV) --- vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) --- interleukin-1? (IL-1?) --- cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) --- nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) --- dietary antioxidants --- antioxidant supplements --- lens --- cataract --- n/a

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