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Adrenal Cortex: From Physiology to Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199198 Year: Pages: 89 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-919-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine --- Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Abstract

The adrenal gland plays essential roles in the control of body homeostasis, stress and immune responses. The adrenal cortex represents up to 90% of the gland and is specialised in the production of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens. This production is tightly coordinated and results from a unique zonal organisation. Although our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms controlling adrenal steroidogenesis is quite extensive, for decades, the mechanisms of adrenal cortex development, cellular homeostasis and renewal have remained elusive. The advent of new high-throughput technologies and sophisticated genetic approaches has brought tremendous progress in our understanding of how the adrenal cortex achieves and maintains its particular organisation. The aim of this Frontiers in Endocrinology Topic is to provide readers with a snapshot of our current knowledge on adrenal physiology and how deregulations of these processes result in adrenal diseases. This includes but is not limited to, basic research on adrenal development, cell lineage identification, progenitor cells, tissue renewal, control of differentiation and zonation and clinical research on the identification of disease-related genes.

The Role of Pregnancy Nutrition in Maternal and Offspring Health

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ISBN: 9783039219964 / 9783039219971 Year: Pages: 320 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-997-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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In pregnancy, maternal nutrition sustains and nourishes the developing child. Imbalances in either the direction of nutritional excess or deficiency can have adverse consequences for child health. In addition, more research now suggests that good pregnancy nutrition influences child health beyond pregnancy and delivery. This includes modifying the risk of child health outcomes as they enter childhood and adulthood through influences on placental development, hormonal pathways, and organ structure and function. Poor pregnancy nutrition may also compromise maternal health during pregnancy, which may have long-term consequences for women’s health. Understanding the biological and social mechanisms operating during pregnancy can help in the design of better clinical and public health interventions. This Special Issue on “The Role of Pregnancy Nutrition in Maternal and Offspring Health” includes etiological and mechanistic studies of pregnancy nutrition with short- and long-term maternal and child health outcomes, including original research, narrative reviews, and systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Together, this body of work provides important insights into the influence of dietary patterns, food groups, and nutrients on pregnancy outcomes, and long-term neurodevelopmental, respiratory, and metabolic health in the children. It also highlights nutritional consequences for specific groups of women, including those with pregnancy complications and eating disorders.

Keywords

Obesity --- chronic kidney disease --- foetal programming --- sirtuin --- choline --- Dlx3 --- placenta --- placental insufficiency --- inflammation --- angiogenesis --- apoptosis --- Iodine --- pregnancy --- birth weight --- Insufficiency --- SGA --- preterm Birth --- nutrition --- diet --- vitamin D --- birthweight --- birth length --- head circumference --- gestational age --- pregnancy outcomes --- vegetarian diets --- vegan diets --- plant-based diets --- nutrition --- pregnancy --- breastfeeding --- human milk --- micronutrients --- fetal development --- fatty fish --- essential fatty acids --- omega-3 --- pregnancy --- birth weight --- foetal growth --- preterm birth --- anorexia nervosa --- bulimia nervosa --- binge eating disorder --- diet --- eating behavior --- eating disorders --- nutrition --- pregnancy --- purging --- asthma --- fortification --- vitamin D --- social experiment --- pregnancy --- lactation --- weaning --- food-related IgG --- food clusters --- non-IgE-mediated food reactions --- maternal nutrition --- Mediterranean diet --- offspring health --- DHA --- gestational diabetes --- preeclampsia --- placental transport --- choline --- pregnancy --- infant nutrition --- brain health --- docosahexaenoic acid --- DHA --- eye function --- ghrelin --- hypothalamic inflammation --- microglia --- nutritional programing --- pregnancy nutrition --- neurodevelopmental disorders --- autism spectrum disorder --- attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity --- developmental origins of health and disease --- systematic review --- meta-analysis --- preterm birth --- preterm labor --- etiology --- nutrition --- DHA --- probiotics --- dietary habits --- maternal nutrition --- gestational diabetes --- food frequency questionnaire --- dietary screening --- lifestyle intervention --- pregnancy --- dietary behaviour --- neonatal outcomes --- birth weight --- large for gestational age (LGA) --- small for gestational age (SGA) --- obesity prevention --- immunomodulators --- maternal nutrition --- pregnancy --- Rhodiola --- Echinacea --- Panax --- Camellia

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