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Executive Functions in Psychiatric Disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453061 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-306-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology --- Medicine (General) --- Psychiatry
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Abstract

Executive Functions comprise a range of neuropsychological processes related to intentional behavior and cognitive control. There are several theoretical models defining and explaining the concept of Executive Functions. Most of these models consider that the term Executive Functions encompasses cognitive process as working memory, cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control and other complex functions as planning, problem-solving and abstract reasoning. Other models argue that motivational and emotional functions, such as affective decision-making, reside under the concept of Executive Function. Much evidence supports how complex cognitive functions are related to the physiological activity of brain networks, including the frontal cortex and its connections with subcortical structures. Several psychiatric disorders related to impairment in these brain networks (eg., bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, ADHD, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and drug addiction) leading to deficits in Executive Functions. These cognitive deficits affect patients’ everyday functioning, worsening the clinical course of the disease. For example, deficits in Executive Functions are related to suicide behavior in bipolar disorder patients. Furthermore, these deficits also relate to obesity, a lack of adherence to treatment and an underperformance in the workplace and educational settings. The understanding of the role of deficits in Executive Functions, including its neurobiological basis, developmental trajectories, and relationship with clinical outcomes, is fundamental to improve clinical management of psychiatric patients. This research topic includes 13 articles with interdisciplinary contributions related to the understanding of the deficits in Executive Functions and its relationship with clinical manifestations in psychiatric disorders.

Development of executive function during childhood

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198009 Year: Pages: 457 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-800-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Executive function refers to the goal-oriented regulation of one’s own thoughts, actions, and emotions. Its importance is attested by its contribution to the development of other cognitive skills (e.g., theory of mind), social abilities (e.g., peer interactions), and academic achievement (e.g., mathematics), and by the consequences of deficits in executive function (which are observed in wide range of developmental disorders, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism). Over the last decade, there have been growing interest in the development of executive function, and an expanding body of research has shown that executive function develops rapidly during the preschool years, with adult-level performance being achieved during adolescence or later. This recent work, together with experimental research showing the effects of interventions targeting executive function, has yielded important insights into the neurocognitive processes underlying executive function. Given the complexity of the construct of executive function, however, and the multiplicity of underlying processes, there are often inconsistencies in the way that executive function is defined and studied. This inconsistency has hampered communication among researchers from various fields. This Research Topic is intended to bridge this gap and provide an opportunity for researchers from different perspectives to discuss recent advances in understanding childhood executive function. Researchers using various methods, including, behavioral experiments, neuroimaging, eye-tracking, computer simulation, observational methods, and questionnaires, are encouraged to contribute original empirical research. In addition to original empirical articles, theoretical reviews and opinions/perspective articles on promising future directions are welcome. We hope that researchers from different areas, such as developmental psychology, educational psychology, experimental psychology, neuropsychology, neuroscience, psychiatry, computational science, etc., will be represented in the Research Topic.

Individual Variation and the Bilingual Advantage - Factors that Modulate the Effect of Bilingualism on Cognitive Control and Cognitive Reserve

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ISBN: 9783039281046 9783039281053 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-105-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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The number of bilingual and multilingual speakers around the world is steadily growing, leading to the questions: How do bilinguals manage two or more language systems in their daily interactions, and how does being bilingual/multilingual affect brain functioning and vice versa? Previous research has shown that cognitive control plays a key role in bilingual language management. This hypothesis is further supported by the fact that foreign languages have been found to affect not only the expected linguistic domains, but surprisingly, other non-linguistic domains such as cognitive control, attention, inhibition, and working memory. Somehow, learning languages seems to affect executive/brain functioning. In the literature, this is referred to as the bilingual advantage, meaning that people who learn two or more languages seem to outperform monolinguals in executive functioning skills. In this Special Issue, we first present studies that investigate the bilingual advantage. We also go one step further, by focusing on factors that modulate the effect of bilingualism on cognitive control. In the second, smaller part of our Special Issue, we focus on the cognitive reserve hypothesis with the aim of addressing the following questions: Does the daily use of two or more languages protect the aging individual against cognitive decline? Does lifelong bilingualism protect against brain diseases, such as dementia, later in life?

Keywords

multilingualism --- bilingual advantage --- Stroop task --- cognates --- orthographic neighbors --- cognitive control --- controlled language processing --- German as a foreign language --- bilingual advantage --- bilingualism --- cognitive control --- individual differences --- longitudinal studies --- methodology --- bilingualism --- bilingual experiences --- executive functioning --- language proficiency --- language use --- language switching --- interactional contexts --- domain-specific self-concept --- academic achievement --- metacognition --- executive functions --- multilingual children --- reading comprehension --- reading fluency --- spelling --- bilingual language dominance --- Stimulus-Stimulus inhibition --- Stimulus-Response inhibition --- speed-accuracy trade-off --- attention network --- alerting --- orienting --- executive functioning --- interpreting --- translation --- bilingualism --- inhibition --- bilingualism --- early childhood --- attention --- cognitive flexibility --- aging --- bilingualism --- cognitive decline --- cognitive reserve hypothesis --- dementia --- onset --- bilingual advantage --- executive control --- language switching --- shifting --- inhibition --- self-reports --- bilingualism --- Attentional Control Theory --- executive function --- trait anxiety --- rumination --- inhibitory control --- eye tracking --- multilingualism --- cognitive abilities --- inhibition --- switching --- disengagement of attention --- executive function --- cognitive effects --- bilingual advantage --- modulating factors --- bilingualism --- aging --- third-age language learning

Towards Mechanism-based Treatments for Fragile X Syndrome

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ISBN: 9783039215058 9783039215065 Year: Pages: 250 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-506-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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It has been more than 25 years since the identification of the FMR1 gene and the demonstration of the causative role of CGG-repeat expansion in the disease pathology of fragile X syndrome (FXS), but the underlying mechanisms involved in the expansion mutation and the resulting gene silencing still remain elusive. Our understanding of the pathways impacted by the loss of FMRP function has grown tremendously, and has opened new avenues for targeted treatments for FXS. However, the failure of recent clinical trials that were based on successful preclinical studies using the Fmr1 knockout mouse model has forced the scientific community to revisit clinical trial design and identify objective outcome measures. There has also been a renewed interest in restoring FMR1 gene expression as a possible treatment approach for FXS. This special issue of Brain Sciences highlights the progress that has been made towards understanding the disease mechanisms and how this has informed the development of treatment strategies that are being explored for FXS.

Keywords

fragile X syndrome --- clinical trials --- targeted treatments --- drug development --- fragile X syndrome --- clinical trials --- treatment development --- best practices --- fragile X syndrome --- newborn screening --- early identification --- fragile X syndrome --- X chromosome --- females --- FMR1 --- anxiety --- avoidance --- cognition --- behavior --- brain --- Fragile X --- FMRP --- Fxr2 --- Fmr1 --- fragile X syndrome --- executive function --- working memory --- set-shifting --- cognitive flexibility --- inhibitory control --- attention --- planning --- processing speed --- Fragile X syndrome 1 --- Fragile X-associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome 2 --- CRISPR 3 --- Trinucleotide Repeat 4 --- Gene editing --- fragile X syndrome --- FMR1 gene --- voice of the person --- voice of the patient --- characteristics that have the greatest impact --- developmental disorders --- fragile X syndrome --- language development --- automated vocal analysis --- adeno-associated virus --- autism spectrum disorders --- cerebral spinal fluid --- fragile X mental retardation protein --- neurodevelopmental disorders --- viral vector --- fragile X syndrome --- gene reactivation --- RNA:DNA hybrid --- FMRP --- histone methylation --- DNA methylation --- FMR1 --- PRC2 --- fragile X syndrome --- unstable repeat diseases --- epigenetic gene silencing --- DNA methylation --- repeat instability --- pluripotent stem cells --- CGG Repeat Expansion Disease --- DNA instability --- expansion --- contraction --- mismatch repair (MMR) --- base excision repair (BER) --- transcription coupled repair (TCR) --- double-strand break repair (DSBR) --- Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) --- mosaicism --- protein synthesis --- Fragile X Syndrome --- biomarker --- iPSC --- fibroblast --- lymphoblast --- fragile X syndrome --- molecular biomarkers --- FMR1 --- FMRP --- intellectual disability --- Fmr1 KO mouse --- ASD --- n/a

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