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Technologies de l'enchantement : Pour une histoire multidisciplinaire de l'illusion

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ISBN: 9782843103537 DOI: 10.4000/books.ugaeditions.596 Language: French
Publisher: UGA Éditions
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:53
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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Abstract

Peut-on faire une « histoire de l'illusion » qui ne se confonde pas avec une litanie de dénonciations ? C'est le pari de ce livre qui propose une quinzaine de plongées ponctuelles dans différentes formes d'illusions - allant d'un tableau de Jérôme Bosch au jeu vidéo Eternal Darkness, de l'aménagement des jardins des Lumières au marketing d'Apple, des fantasmagories scientifiques du xixe siècle aux modélisations de l'économie néolibérale, de l'effet placebo à l'art contemporain, des premiers rayons X aux derniers drones, en passant par Lucrèce, Descartes, Diderot, Lessing, Freud, Hitchcock, Winnicott et Baudrillard. Cette réflexion collective est placée sous les auspices d'un article célèbre de l'anthropologue britannique Alfred Gell, « La technologie de l'enchantement et l'enchantement de la technologie », traduit ici pour la première fois en français. Des proues de canoë mélanésiennes à une sculpture de Picasso, prouesses techniques et créations artistiques semblent relever d'un même enchantement, par lequel les humains élèvent leurs cultures en s'illusionnant sur ce qu'ils sont capables de faire. Au carrefour des imaginaires scientifiques et des pratiques interprétatives développées par les savoirs littéraires, ce volume multiplie les perspectives et les croisements disciplinaires, pour finalement s'inscrire dans le champ émergent de l'archéologie des médias. À travers un parcours en six parties - consacrées à l'anthropologie (« Technologies et enchantements »), à l'esthétique (« Tromper l'œil »), à la philosophie (« Capter les croyances »), à la scénographie (« Scénariser le monde »), aux nouvelles technologies (« Machiner le virtuel ») et à l'économie (« Vendre du vent ») - il espère aider à nous orienter dans un monde déroutant, où les enchantements médiatiques nous immergent dans un bain d'illusions toujours plus prégnantes. Les dix-sept études réunies ici gravitent autour d'une même question : comment et pourquoi apprendre à vivre avec les illusions, au lieu de s'obstiner à se battre contre elles ?

Keywords

illusion --- philosophie

The Psychology of Magic and the Magic of Psychology

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450084 Year: Pages: 175 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-008-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Magicians have dazzled audiences for many centuries; however, few researchers have studied how, let alone why, most tricks work. The psychology of magic is a nascent field of research that examines the underlying mechanisms that conjurers use to achieve enchanting phenomena, including sensory illusions, misdirection of attention, and the appearance of mind-control and nuanced persuasion. Most studies to date have focused on either the psychological principles involved in watching and performing magic or “neuromagic” - the neural correlates of such phenomena. Whereas performers sometimes question the contributions that modern science may offer to the advancement of the magical arts, the history of magic reveals that scientific discovery often charts new territories for magicians. In this research topic we sketch out the symbiotic relationship between psychological science and the art of magic. On the one hand, magic can inform psychology, with particular benefits for the cognitive, social, developmental, and transcultural components of behavioural science. Magicians have a large and robust set of effects that most researchers rarely exploit. Incorporating these effects into existing experimental, even clinical, paradigms paves the road to innovative trajectories in the study of human behaviour. For example, magic provides an elegant way to study the behaviour of participants who may believe they had made choices that they actually did not make. Moreover, magic fosters a more ecological approach to experimentation whereby scientists can probe participants in more natural environments compared to the traditional lab-based settings. Examining how magicians consistently influence spectators, for example, can elucidate important aspects in the study of persuasion, trust, decision-making, and even processes spanning authorship and agency. Magic thus offers a largely underused armamentarium for the behavioural scientist and clinician. On the other hand, psychological science can advance the art of magic. The psychology of deception, a relatively understudied field, explores the intentional creation of false beliefs and how people often go wrong. Understanding how to methodically exploit the tenuous twilight zone of human vulnerabilities – perceptual, logical, emotional, and temporal – becomes all the more revealing when top-down influences, including expectation, symbolic thinking, and framing, join the fray. Over the years, science has permitted magicians to concoct increasingly effective routines and to elicit heightened feelings of wonder from audiences. Furthermore, on occasion science leads to the creation of novel effects, or the refinement of existing ones, based on systematic methods. For example, by simulating a specific card routine using a series of computer stimuli, researchers have decomposed the effect to assess its essential elements. Other magic effects depend on meaningful psychological knowledge, such as which type of information is difficult to retain or what changes capture attention. Behavioural scientists measure and study these factors. By combining analytical findings with performer intuitions, psychological science begets effective magic. Whereas science strives on parsimony and independent replication of results, magic thrives on reproducing the same effect with multiple methods to obscure parsimony and minimise detection. This Research Topic explores the seemingly orthogonal approaches of scientists and magicians by highlighting the crosstalk as well as rapprochement between psychological science and the art of deception.

Keywords

Magic --- Psychology --- deception --- Misdirection --- persuasion --- Illusion --- wonder

Von illusionärer Wirklichkeit und wahrer Illusion

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ISBN: 9783465035091 Year: Pages: 358 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/oapen_437139 Language: German
Publisher: Vittorio Klostermann GmbH Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 3817
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:48:38
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In the eighteenth century, Venice was not only a centre of theatre life but also a centre for discussion about theatre. In literary and theatre history the well-known Venetian theatrical dispute, with its protagonists Carlo Goldoni and Carlo Gozzi, seem to provoke a simplistic reproduction of the polemics. A predominantly negative image of Gozzi is correlated with an appreciation of Goldoni and his dramaturgical reform, whrereas while Gozzi is considered the savior of the commedia dell´arte, Goldoni appears as ist grave-digger. This study tries to break open such prejudice, reading Gozzi´s "Fiabe teatrali" as a veritable counterpoint to Goldoni´s comedies and Enlightenment drama. Against the background of Italian theatre in the 18th century and contemporary Venetian theatricality, Gozzi´s intention, as well as the speical caracteristics of his tales for the theatre, becomes evident. Using fairy tales and commedia dell´arte as basic constituents for his "Fiabe teatrali", Gozzi responds to a theatre that emphasizes the reflection of everyday life and follows the concept of utility. The combination of elements are distanced from reality in a way that resembles an ars combinatoria, based on a structure of constrasts that underlines its artificial character. This displays the autonomy of theatrical reality and and the importance of imagination. However, the fairy tale illusion refers back to reality in two ways: on the one hand the traditional masks comment directly current events, on the other hand theatrical illusion indirectly reveals truth that remains secret in discourse. As a new dramatic genre the "Fiabe teatrali" open the possibility to reflect on the constructed character of reality and to set on stage the problematic nature of the perception of truth.

À temps et à contretemps

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ISBN: 9782722601543 Year: Language: French
Publisher: Collège de France
Added to DOAB on : 2014-02-27 14:16:29
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

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« Une des convictions fondamentales de Russell est celle de l’existence d’un lien intrinsèque entre la méthode scientifique et le mode de pensée démocratique. Cela est dû notamment à des choses comme l’intronisation par la science du principe de la libre recherche comme principe suprême en matière d’acquisition de la connaissance, l’incitation à adopter une attitude objective et impartiale à l’égard de la réalité, et la renonciation à l’idée de vérité absolue, qui constitue toujours, d’une ma...

Das russische Drama der achtziger Jahre

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Book Series: Arbeiten und Texte zur Slavistik ISBN: 9783876905143 Year: Pages: 342 DOI: 10.3726/b12853 Language: German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:31:46
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Lange vor dem sich immer deutlicher abzeichnenden totalen Versagen der kommunistischen Welterlösungsideologie und dem Zusammenbruch ihrer politischen Führungsmacht haben die bedeutendsten Schriftsteller des Landes den materiellen und geistigen Niedergang ihrer Gesellschaft erfaßt und zur Anschauung gebracht. Kritik am ökonomischen Versagen, Befragung der jüngeren Geschichte nach den Ursachen für den politischen Irrweg, Auseinandersetzung mit der moralischen Deformation im öffentlichen und privaten Bereich und die Suche nach einem neuen geistigen Halt sind die dominierenden Kennzeichen der russischen Dramatik der achtziger Jahre, die einen von Jahr zu Jahr schmerzlicher empfundenen Prozeß der Desillusionierung, aber auch der Selbstbefreiung von Verblendung und Lüge durchlaufen hat.

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