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G-quadruplex and Microorganisms

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ISBN: 9783039212439 9783039212446 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-244-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Abstract

G-quadruplexes (G4s) are nucleic acids secondary structures that form in DNA or RNA guanine (G)-rich strands. In recent years, the presence of G4s in microorganisms has attracted increasing interest. In prokaryotes, G4 sequences have been reported in several human pathogens. Bacterial enzymes able to process G4s have been identified. In viruses, G4s have been suggested to be involved in key steps of the viral life cycle: They have been associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), human papilloma virus, swine pseudorabies virus, and other viruses’ genomes. New evidence shows the presence of G4s in parasitic protozoa, such as the causative agent of malaria. G4 binding proteins and mRNA G4s have been implicated in the regulation of microorganisms’ genome replication and translation. G4 ligands have been developed and tested both as tools to study the complexity of G4-mediated mechanisms in the viral life cycle and as therapeutic agents. Moreover, new techniques to study G4 folding and their interactions with proteins have been developed. This Special Issue will focus on G4s present in microorganisms, addressing all the above aspects.

Equine Viruses

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ISBN: 9783039283200 / 9783039283217 Year: Pages: 230 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-321-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has recently estimated that the world equid population exceeds 110 million. Working equids (horses, ponies, donkeys, and mules) remain essential to ensure the livelihood of poor communities around the world. In many developed countries, the equine industry has significant economical weight, with around 7 million horses in Europe alone. The close relationship between humans and equids and the fact that the athlete horse is the terrestrial mammal that travels the most worldwide after humans are important elements to consider in the transmission of pathogens and diseases, amongst equids and to other species. The potential effect of climate change on vector ecology and vector-borne diseases is also of concern for both human and animal health. In this Special Issue, we intend to explore our understanding of a panel of equine viruses, looking at their pathogenicity, their importance in terms of welfare and potential association with diseases, their economic importance and impact on performance, and how their identification can be helped by new technologies and methods.

Keywords

equine papillomaviruses --- horse --- genital wart --- phylogeny --- evolution --- Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus --- vaccine --- strain selection --- Animal Rule --- cDNA cloned virus --- virus stock propagation --- African horse sickness --- virus structure --- replication --- vaccine strategies --- Equid alphaherpesvirus 1 --- horse --- PCR --- sequencing --- ORF30 --- ORF33 --- ORF34 --- ORF68 --- equine herpesvirus type 1 --- outbreak --- respiratory disease --- abortion --- neuropathogenic strain --- myeloencephalopathy --- phylogeny --- ORF30 --- MLST --- Parvoviridae --- Eqcopivirus --- horse parvovirus-CSF --- equine hepacivirus --- equine parvovirus H --- bosavirus --- virome --- equine coronavirus --- Ireland --- enteric disease --- equine rhinitis virus A --- Thoroughbred racehorses --- loss of performance --- equine parvovirus-hepatitis --- Germany --- risk factors --- transmission --- arbovirus --- flavivirus --- hematophagous arthropod --- hepacivirus A --- hepatitis --- insects --- mosquito-borne virus --- virus transmission --- equine coronavirus --- spike S1 protein --- ELISA --- virus neutralization --- seroprevalence --- MxA --- equine Mx1 --- influenza A viruses --- polymerase activity --- interspecies transmission --- nucleoprotein --- equine influenza --- non-primate hepacivirus --- equine hepacivirus --- in utero transmission --- horse --- fetuses --- encephalitis --- arbovirus --- rabies --- Equid herpesviruses --- Borna disease virus --- West Nile virus --- horses --- n/a

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