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Sols artificialisés

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ISBN: 9782759230846 9782759230853 9782759230839 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.35690/978-2-7592-3084-6 Language: French
Publisher: éditions Quae
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-11 11:21:32
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Considered as one of the main factors in erosion of the biodiversity, land take describes the global reduction in the proportion of land allocated to farming and forestry or to natural spaces. This work identifies the decisive economic and social factors in land take and its impact on the environment and agriculture. It suggests levers of action likely to limit its development and its negative effects.

Electromagnetic Wave Scattering by Aerial and Ground Radar Objects

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ISBN: 9781466576780 Year: Pages: 337 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-07-24 23:58:41
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Electromagnetic Wave Scattering by Aerial and Ground Radar Objects presents the theory, original calculation methods, and computational results of the scattering characteristics of different aerial and ground radar objects. This must-have book provides essential background for computing electromagnetic wave scattering in the presence of different kinds of irregularities, as well as Summarizes fundamental electromagnetic statements such as the Lorentz reciprocity theorem and the image principle Contains integral field representations enabling the study of scattering from various layered structures Describes scattering computation techniques for objects with surface fractures and radar-absorbent coatings Covers elimination of "terminator discontinuities" appearing in the method of physical optics in general bistatic cases Includes radar cross-section (RCS) statistics and high-range resolution profiles of assorted aircrafts, cruise missiles, and tanks Complete with radar backscattering diagrams, echo signal amplitude probability distributions, and other valuable reference material, Electromagnetic Wave Scattering by Aerial and Ground Radar Objects is ideal for scientists, engineers, and researchers of electromagnetic wave scattering, computational electrodynamics, and radar detection and recognition algorithms.

Keywords

Aerial --- Electro --- Electromagnetic --- Ground --- Objects --- Radar --- Scattering

Performance of Innovative Controlled Buildings Under Resonant and Critical Earthquake Ground Motions

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456369 Year: Pages: 87 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-636-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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This eBook is the fourth in a series of books on the critical earthquake response of elastic or elastic-plastic structures under near-fault or long-duration ground motions, and includes six original research papers which were published in the specialty section Earthquake Engineering in ‘Frontiers in Built Environment’. Several extensions of the first eBook, the second eBook and the third eBook are included here. The first article is on the comparison of earthquake resilience of various building structures including innovative base-isolation systems and control systems. Pulse-type ground motions and resonant harmonic ground motions are used for investigating the earthquake resilience of those innovative building structures. The second article is concerned with the performance of an innovative seismic response controlled system with shear walls and concentrated dampers in lower stories. The resonant one-cycle sine waves and resonant harmonic waves are used as the input ground motions. The third article is related to the robustness evaluation of a base-isolation building-connection hybrid controlled building structure under the critical long-period and long-duration ground motion. The multi impulse is used as a substitute for a long-period and long-duration ground motion and the model reduction to a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system is conducted to propose a simple response evaluation method. The fourth article is an extension of the previously proposed energy balance approach to a damped bilinear hysteretic SDOF system under a double impulse as a substitute for a near-fault ground motion. The energy absorption through viscous damping is incorporated appropriately in the energy balance and the application of the proposed method to actual recorded ground motions is presented. The fifth article is on the robustness evaluation of base-isolation building-connection hybrid controlled building structures considering uncertainties in deep ground. The earthquake ground motion amplitude at the earthquake bedrock is evaluated by the Boore’s stochastic method in 1983 including the fault rupture and the wave propagation into the earthquake bedrock. Then the phase angle property at the earthquake bedrock is investigated by introducing the concept of phase difference which is defined for each earthquake type. A wave at the ground surface nearly resonant to the base-isolation building-connection hybrid controlled building structure is produced by considering uncertainties in deep ground. The sixth article is concerned with the critical response of nonlinear base-isolated buildings considering soil-structure interaction under a double impulse as a substitute for a near-fault ground motion. The complicated model of a nonlinear base-isolated building on ground is modeled into an SDOF system after a few model reduction processes. The approach presented in this eBook, together with the previous eBooks, is an epoch-making accomplishment to open the door for simpler and deeper understanding of structural reliability and resilience of built environments in the elastic-plastic and nonlinear range.

Context in Communication: A Cognitive View

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451425 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-142-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Context is what contributes to interpret a communicative act beyond the spoken words. It provides information essential to clarify the intentions of a speaker, and thus to identify the actual meaning of an utterance. A large amount of research in Pragmatics has shown how wide-ranging and multifaceted this concept can be. Context spans from the preceding words in a conversation to the general knowledge that the interlocutors supposedly share, from the perceived environment to features and traits that the participants in a dialogue attribute to each other. This last category is also very broad, since it includes mental and emotional states, together with culturally constructed knowledge, such as the reciprocal identification of social roles and positions. The assumption of a cognitive point of view brings to the foreground a number of new questions regarding how information about the context is organized in the mind and how this kind of knowledge is used in specific communicative situations. A related, very important question concerns the role played in this process by theory of mind abilities (ToM), both in typical and atypical populations. In this Research Topic, we bring together articles that address different aspects of context analysis from theoretical and empirical perspectives, integrating knowledge and methods derived from Philosophy of language, Linguistics, Cognitive Science, Cognitive Neuroscience, Developmental and Clinical Psychology.Context is what contributes to interpret a communicative act beyond the spoken words. It provides information essential to clarify the intentions of a speaker, and thus to identify the actual meaning of an utterance. A large amount of research in Pragmatics has shown how wide-ranging and multifaceted this concept can be. Context spans from the preceding words in a conversation to the general knowledge that the interlocutors supposedly share, from the perceived environment to features and traits that the participants in a dialogue attribute to each other. This last category is also very broad, since it includes mental and emotional states, together with culturally constructed knowledge, such as the reciprocal identification of social roles and positions. The assumption of a cognitive point of view brings to the foreground a number of new questions regarding how information about the context is organized in the mind and how this kind of knowledge is used in specific communicative situations. A related, very important question concerns the role played in this process by theory of mind abilities (ToM), both in typical and atypical populations. In this Research Topic, we bring together articles that address different aspects of context analysis from theoretical and empirical perspectives, integrating knowledge and methods derived from Philosophy of language, Linguistics, Cognitive Science, Cognitive Neuroscience, Developmental and Clinical Psychology.

Observing Geohazards from Space

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ISBN: 9783038427759 9783038427766 Year: Pages: VIII, 244 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-27 16:24:07
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With a wide spectrum of imaging capabilities, Earth observation offers several opportunities for the geoscience community to map and monitor natural and human-induced Earth hazards from space. The objective of this book is to collect scientific contributions on the development, validation, and implementation of satellite data, processing methods, and applications for mapping and monitoring of geohazards such as slow moving landslides, ground subsidence and uplift, and active and abandoned mining-related ground movements.The book includes research papers published in the Special Issue "Observing Geohazards from Space" of Geosciences, which provides a number of novel case studies demonstrating how Earth observation and remote sensing data can be used to detect and delineate land instability and geological hazards in different environmental contexts and using a range of spatial resolutions and image processing methods.

Pesticides

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9782759223442 9782759223459 9782759223435 Year: Pages: 400 DOI: 10.35690/978-2-7592-2344-2 Language: French
Publisher: éditions Quae
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-11 11:21:33
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Pesticides are today the subject of considerable environmental issues. This work presents the outcome of fifteen years of research financed by the French Ministry of Ecology on the reduction in environmental risks from using pesticides. It emphasises especially the transfer of results to support public decisions.

Evaluation of Building Resilience Under Earthquake Input Using Single, Double and Multiple Impulses

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452705 Year: Pages: 61 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-270-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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This eBook is the third in a series of books on the critical earthquake response of elastic or elastic-plastic structures under near-fault or long-duration ground motions, and includes four original research papers which were published in the specialty section Earthquake Engineering in ‘Frontiers in Built Environment’. Several extensions of the first eBook and the second eBook are included here. The first article is on the earthquake resilience of residential houses after repeated ground motions with high intensity. The 2016 Kumamoto earthquake brought a significant impact on the earthquake resilience of residential houses under repeated ground motions with high intensity in a few days. The necessary strength upgrade withstanding two repeated high-intensity ground motions was found to be 1.5. The second article is concerned with the smart enhancement of earthquake resilience of building structures under both near-fault and long-duration ground motions. A hybrid system of base-isolation and building connection control was proposed and its earthquake resilience to near-fault and long-duration ground motions was evaluated by a double impulse and a multiple impulse. It was demonstrated that the base-isolation is effective for near-fault ground motions and the building connection system using passive dampers is effective for long-duration ground motions. The third article is related to the robustness evaluation of elastic-plastic base-isolated high-rise buildings under resonant near-fault ground motions. The robustness function was introduced to evaluate quantitatively the robustness of elastic-plastic base-isolated high-rise buildings. The fourth article is an extension of the previously proposed energy balance approach to a bilinear elastic-plastic single-degree-of-freedom system under a long-duration sinusoidal ground motion. A historical difficulty in nonlinear vibration posed by Caughey (1960) and Iwan (1961) has been overcome in a smart manner after half a century. The approach presented in this eBook, together with the previous eBooks, is an epoch-making accomplishment to open the door for simpler and deeper understanding of structural reliability and resilience of built environments in the elastic-plastic and nonlinear range.

Thunau am Kamp - Das frühmittelalterliche Gräberfeld auf der Oberen Holzwiese

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ISBN: 9783700180661 Year: Pages: 402 Seiten Language: German
Publisher: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 485
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-28 11:21:04

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The burial ground on the Obere Holzwiese consists of 215 burials and is therefore by far the largest uncovered burial site of Carolingian times in Lower Austria north of the Danube. It belonged to a fortified central settlement, a center of power, the core of which built a 'manor farm'. In addition to the comprehensive archaeological analysis the volume contains investigations concerning archaeobotanics, material analyses, metallography, anthropology, textiles and leather.

Une agronomie pour le XXIe siècle

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9782759229383 9782759229390 9782759229376 Year: Pages: 304 DOI: 10.35690/978-2-7592-2938-3 Language: French
Publisher: éditions Quae
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-11 11:21:33
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The challenge for agricultural systems today is to produce whilst drastically reducing greenhouse gas emissions, in limited agricultural spaces where the biodiversity, quality of resources, soils, water, air, etc. all have to be protected. This collective work, published to mark the twentieth anniversary of the creation of the Inra Environment and Agronomy Department, takes stock of progress made in this area.

Critical Earthquake Response of Elastic-Plastic Structures and Rigid Blocks under Near-Fault Ground Motions: Closed-Form Approach via Double Impulse

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Book Series: Frontiers Theme Book ISBN: 9782889198702 Year: Pages: 64 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-870-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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This eBook is the second in a series of books on the critical earthquake response of elastic-plastic structures or rigid blocks under near-fault ground motions, and includes four original research papers which were published in the specialty section Earthquake Engineering in ‘Frontiers in Built Environment’. Several extensions of the first book1 are included here. The first article is on the soil-structure interaction problem. The reduction of an original soil-structure interaction model into a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) model enables the application of the original theory for an SDOF model to such complicated soil-structure interaction model. The second article is concerned with the extension of the original theory for an SDOF model to a 2DOF model. Since the simple application of the original theory for an SDOF model to a multi-degree-of-freedom model is difficult due to out-of-phase phenomenon of multiple masses, a convex model theory is introduced and an upper bound of elastic-plastic response is derived. The third article is related to the stability problem of structures (collapse problems of structures) in which the P-delta effect is included. It is shown that the original theory for an SDOF model with elastic-perfectly plastic restoring-force characteristic can be applied to a model with negative second slope. The fourth article is an application of the energy balance approach to an overturning limit problem of rigid blocks. A closed-form expression of the overturning limit of rigid blocks is derived for the first time after the Housner’s pioneering work in 1963. The approach presented in this book, together with the first book, is an epoch-making accomplishment to open the door for simpler and deeper understanding of structural reliability of built environments in the elastic-plastic and nonlinear range.

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