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Entwicklung und Optimierung eines biotechnologischen Prozesses zur Herstellung mikrobieller Rhamnolipide auf Basis nachwachsender Rohstoffe

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ISBN: 9783866442771 Year: Pages: 156 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000009236 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:02
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Im Fokus dieser Arbeit steht die Entwicklung und Optimierung eines biotechnologischen Prozesses zur Herstellung von Rhamnolipiden auf Basis von nachwachsenden Rohstoffen. Ein Schwerpunkt lag hierbei auf der Entwicklung und Evaluierung einer Standardprozessführung, sowie eines auf einem Parallelbioreaktor basierenden, effizienten Screening-Systems. Ein Produk­tions­stammvergleich wurde durchgeführt. Zur Produktanalyse sollte FTIR-Spektroskopie als alternative Analysemethode eingesetzt werden.

Current challenges in photosynthesis: From natural to artificial

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192861 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-286-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:07
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Jules Verne (1828-1905), author of Around the World in Eighty Days (1873) and Journey to the Center of the Earth (1864), wrote in 1875:"I believe that water will one day be used as a fuel, because the hydrogen and oxygen which constitute it, used separately or together, will furnish an inexhaustible source of heat and light. I therefore believe that, when coal (oil) deposits are oxidised, we will heat ourselves by means of water. Water is the fuel of the future". Solar energy is the only renewable energy source that has sufficient capacity for the global energy need; it is the only one that can address the issues of energy crisis and global climate change. A vast amount of solar energy is harvested and stored via photosynthesis in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria since over 3 billion years. Today, it is estimated that photosynthesis produces more than 100 billion tons of dry biomass annually, which would be equivalent to a hundred times the weight of the total human population on our planet at the present time, and equal to a global energy storage rate of about 100 TW. The solar power is the most abundant source of renewable energy, and oxygenic photosynthesis uses this energy to power the planet using the amazing reaction of water splitting. During water splitting, driven ultimately by sunlight, oxygen is released into the atmosphere, and this, along with food production by photosynthesis, supports life on our earth. The other product of water oxidation is “hydrogen” (proton and electron). This ‘hydrogen’ is not normally released into the atmosphere as hydrogen gas but combined with carbon dioxide to make high energy containing organic molecules. When we burn fuels we combine these organic molecules with oxygen. The design of new solar energy systems must adhere to the same principle as that of natural photosynthesis. For us to manipulate it to our benefit, it is imperative that we completely understand the basic processes of natural photosynthesis, and chemical conversion, such as light harvesting, excitation energy transfer, electron transfer, ion transport, and carbon fixation. Equally important, we must exploit application of this knowledge to the development of fully synthetic and/or hybrid devices. Understanding of photosynthetic reactions is not only a satisfying intellectual pursuit, but it is important for improving agricultural yields and for developing new solar technologies. Today, we have considerable knowledge of the working of photosynthesis and its photosystems, including the water oxidation reaction. Recent advances towards the understanding of the structure and the mechanism of the natural photosynthetic systems are being made at the molecular level. To mimic natural photosynthesis, inorganic chemists, organic chemists, electrochemists, material scientists, biochemists, biophysicists, and plant biologists must work together and only then significant progress in harnessing energy via “artificial photosynthesis” will be possible. This Research Topic provides recent advances of our understanding of photosynthesis, gives to our readers recent information on photosynthesis research, and summarizes the characteristics of the natural system from the standpoint of what we could learn from it to produce an efficient artificial system, i.e., from the natural to the artificial. This topic is intended to include exciting breakthroughs, possible limitations, and open questions in the frontiers in photosynthesis research.

Siloxane-Based Polymers

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ISBN: 9783038971252 / 9783038971269 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-126-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This book, a collection of 12 original contributions and 4 reviews, provides a selection of the most recent advances in the preparation, characterization, and applications of polymeric nanocomposites comprising nanoparticles. The concept of nanoparticle-reinforced polymers came about three decades ago, following the outstanding discovery of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. One of the main ideas behind this approach is to improve the matrix mechanical performance. The nanoparticles exhibit higher specific surface area, surface energy, and density compared to microparticles and, hence, lower nanofiller concentrations are needed to attain properties comparable to, or even better than, those obtained by conventional microfiller loadings, which facilitates processing and minimizes the increase in composite weight. The addition of nanoparticles into different polymer matrices opens up an important research area in the field of composite materials. Moreover, many different types of inorganic nanoparticles, such as quantum dots, metal oxides, and ceramic and metallic nanoparticles, have been incorporated into polymers for their application in a wide range of fields, ranging from medicine to photovoltaics, packaging, and structural applications.

Keywords

fabrication --- multielectrode array (MEA) --- PDMS --- PDMS etching --- plateau-shaped electrode --- recessed electrode --- spinal cord signal recording --- underexposure --- organosilane --- quartz microcrystal --- encapsulant --- refractive index --- thermal conductivity --- poly(dimethylsiloxanes) --- surface modification --- nanosilica --- diethyl carbonate --- carbon content --- morphology --- coatings --- fillers --- hybrid hydrogel --- MAPOSS --- mechanical properties --- swelling --- drug release --- dental resin --- methacryl POSS --- shrinkage --- hardness --- scratch resistance --- ceramizable silicone rubber --- borate --- halloysite --- composite --- ceramizable mechanism --- polysiloxanes --- mortar --- basalt fibre --- roughness --- surface free energy --- poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) --- hydrophilic --- non-releasable --- polydimethylsiloxane --- coatings --- cross-linking --- surface --- amphiphilic --- anti-bioadhesion --- hyperbranched poly(methylhydrosiloxanes) --- hydrolytic polycondensation --- 29Si-NMR --- topology of polysiloxane chains --- polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes --- high molecular weight --- nanoparticles --- PDMS --- sugar templating process --- 3D porous network --- thermal stability --- TG-FTIR --- X-ray (Micro-CT) microtomography --- sol-gel --- hybrids --- chlorogenic acid --- bioactivity --- FTIR --- TG --- polysiloxanes --- theranostics --- drug delivery --- nanomedicine --- PDMS --- silicon --- ultraviolet (UV) curable coatings --- low surface energy materials --- fluorinated siloxane resin

Synthesis and Applications of Biopolymer Composites

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039211326 / 9783039211333 Year: Pages: 312 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-133-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This book, as a collection of 17 research articles, provides a selection of the most recent advances in the synthesis, characterization, and applications of environmentally friendly and biodegradable biopolymer composites and nanocomposites. Recently, the demand has been growing for a clean and pollution-free environment and an evident target regarding the minimization of fossil fuel usage. Therefore, much attention has been focused on research to replace petroleum-based commodity plastics by biodegradable materials arising from biological and renewable resources. Biopolymers—polymers produced from natural sources either chemically from a biological material or biosynthesized by living organisms—are suitable alternatives for addressing these issues due to their outstanding properties, including good barrier performance, biodegradation ability, and low weight. However, they generally possess poor mechanical properties, a short fatigue life, low chemical resistance, poor long-term durability, and limited processing capability. In order to overcome these deficiencies, biopolymers can be reinforced with fillers or nanofillers (with at least one of their dimensions in the nanometer range). Bionanocomposites are advantageous for a wide range of applications, such as in medicine, pharmaceutics, cosmetics, food packaging, agriculture, forestry, electronics, transport, construction, and many more.

Keywords

nanocellulose --- protease sensor --- human neutrophil elastase --- peptide-cellulose conformation --- aerogel --- glycol chitosan --- ?-tocopherol succinate --- amphiphilic polymer --- micelles --- paclitaxel --- chitosan --- PVA --- nanofibers --- electrospinning --- nanocellulose --- carbon nanotubes --- nanocomposite --- conductivity --- surfactant --- Poly(propylene carbonate) --- thermoplastic polyurethane --- compatibility --- toughness --- biopolyester --- compatibilizer --- cellulose --- elastomer --- toughening --- biodisintegration --- heat deflection temperature --- biopolymers composites --- MgO whiskers --- PLLA --- in vitro degradation --- natural rubber --- plasticized starch --- polyfunctional monomers --- physical and mechanical properties --- cross-link density --- water uptake --- chitosan --- deoxycholic acid --- folic acid --- amphiphilic polymer --- micelles --- paclitaxel --- silk fibroin --- glass transition --- DMA --- FTIR --- stress-strain --- active packaging materials --- alginate films --- antimicrobial agents --- antioxidant activity --- biodegradable films --- essential oils --- polycarbonate --- thermal decomposition kinetics --- TG/FTIR --- Py-GC/MS --- wheat gluten --- potato protein --- chemical pre-treatment --- structural profile --- tensile properties --- biocomposites --- natural fibers --- poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-3-hydroxyvalerate) --- biodegradation --- impact properties --- chitin nanofibrils --- poly(lactic acid) --- nanocomposites --- bio-based polymers --- natural fibers --- biomass --- biocomposites --- fiber/matrix adhesion --- bio-composites --- mechanical properties --- poly(lactic acid) --- cellulose fibers --- n/a

Multiscale and Innovative Kinetic Approaches in Heterogeneous Catalysis

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ISBN: 9783039211791 / 9783039211807 Year: Pages: 214 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-180-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Kinetics and reactor modeling for heterogeneous catalytic reactions are prominent tools for investigating and understanding catalyst functionalities at nanoscale and the related rates of complex reaction networks. This book illustrates some examples related to the transformation of simple to more complex feedstocks, including different types of reactor designs, i.e., steady-state, transient plug flow reactors, and TAP reactors for which there is sometimes a strong gap in the operating conditions from ultra-high-vacuum to high-pressure conditions. In conjunction, new methodologies have emerged, giving rise to more robust microkinetics models. As exemplified, they include the kinetics and the dynamics of the reactors and span a large range of length and time scales. The objective of this Special Issue is to provide contributions that can illustrate recent advances and novel methodologies for elucidating the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions and the necessary multiscale approach for optimizing the reactor design. This book is dedicated to postgraduate and scientific researchers, and experts in heterogeneous catalysis. It may also serve as a source of original information for the elaboration of lessons on catalysis for Master students.

Sol-Gel Chemistry Applied to Materials Science

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ISBN: 9783039213535 / 9783039213542 Year: Pages: 216 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-354-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Sol–gel technology is a contemporary advancement in science that requires taking a multidisciplinary approach with regard to its various applications. This book highlights some applications of the sol–gel technology, including protective coatings, catalysts, piezoelectric devices, wave guides, lenses, high-strength ceramics, superconductors, synthesis of nanoparticles, and insulating materials. In particular, for biotechnological applications, biomolecules or the incorporation of bioactive substances into the sol–gel matrix has been extensively studied and has been a challenge for many researchers. Some sol–gel materials are widely applied in light-emitting diodes, solar cells, sensing, catalysis, integration in photovoltaic devices, and more recently in biosensing, bioimaging, or medical diagnosis; others can be considered excellent drug delivery systems. The goal of an ideal drug delivery system is the prompt delivery of a therapeutic amount of the drug to the proper site in the body, where the desired drug concentration can be maintained. The interactions between drugs and the sol–gel system can affect the release rate. In conclusion, the sol–gel synthesis method offers mixing at the molecular level and is able to improve the chemical homogeneity of the resulting composite. This opens new doors not only regarding

Keywords

sol-gel method --- Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis --- bioactivity --- biocompatibility --- sol–gel method --- organic-inorganic hybrids --- chlorogenic acid --- cytotoxicity --- biocompatibility --- silsesquioxanes --- thiol-ene click reaction --- in situ water production --- hydrophobic coatings --- cotton fabric --- paper --- NMR --- wettability --- sol-gel --- hollow sphere --- 1D structure --- sol-gel --- thin-disk laser --- Yb-doped glasses --- aluminosilicate glasses --- photoluminescence --- ultrasonic spray deposition --- tungsten oxide --- lithium lanthanum titanium oxide --- conformal coating --- Li-ion batteries --- sol-gel technique --- biomaterials --- cell proliferation --- cell cycle --- one transistor and one resistor (1T1R) --- organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) --- resistive random access memory (RRAM) --- sol-gel --- lithium-ion battery --- LiMnxFe(1?x)PO4 --- carbon coating --- pseudo-diffusion coefficient --- potential step voltammetry --- electrochemical impedance spectroscopy --- sol-gel --- oxyfluoride glass-ceramics --- nanocrystal --- optical properties --- sol-gel method --- SiO2–based hybrids --- poly(?-caprolactone) --- TG-DSC --- TG-FTIR --- X-ray diffraction analysis --- computer-aided design (CAD) --- mechanical analysis --- finite element analysis (FEA) --- composites --- organic–inorganic hybrid materials --- biomedical applications --- metal oxides --- multi-layer --- surface plasmon resonance --- optical sensors --- computer-aided design (CAD) --- mechanical analysis --- finite element analysis (FEA) --- composites --- hybrid materials --- biomedical applications

Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis

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ISBN: 9783038976943 / 9783038976950 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-695-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Although the seminal work of Fujishima et al. dates back to 1971, TiO2 still remains the most diffused and studied semiconductor, employed in photo-oxidation processes for cleantech (i.e., polluted water and air treatment), in solar fuel production (mainly hydrogen production by water photo splitting), and in Carbon Capture and Utilization (CCU) processes by CO2 photoreduction. The eleven articles, among them three reviews, in this book cover recent results and research trends of various aspects of titanium dioxide photocatalysis, with the chief aim of improving the final efficiency of TiO2-based materials. Strategies include doping, metal co-catalyst deposition, and the realization of composites with plasmonic materials, other semiconductors, and graphene. Photocatalysts with high efficiency and selectivity can be also obtained by controlling the precise crystal shape (and homogeneous size) and the organization in superstructures from ultrathin films to hierarchical nanostructures. Finally, the theoretical modeling of TiO2 nanoparticles is discussed and highlighted. The range of topics addressed in this book will stimulate the reader’s interest as well as provide a valuable source of information for researchers in academia and industry.

The Close Linkage between Nutrition and Environment through Biodiversity and Sustainability: Local Foods, Traditional Recipes and Sustainable Diets

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ISBN: 9783039213832 / 9783039213849 Year: Pages: 216 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-384-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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The Close Linkage between Nutrition and Environment through Biodiversity and Sustainability: Local Foods, Traditional Recipes, and Sustainable Diets” is focused on the close correlation between the potential benefits and “functional role” of food and territory, and it includes papers on the characterization of local foods and traditional recipes as well as on the promotion of traditional dietary patterns and sustainable diets.

Keywords

Italian garlic --- carbohydrates --- fructans --- dietary fibre --- soluble sugars --- cultivar --- environmental conditions --- agave sap --- actinomycetes --- anticancer activity --- saponins --- metabolomics --- ecosystem goods and services --- environmental sustainability --- livelihood needs --- Schinziophyton rautanenii --- Southern Africa --- sustainable development goals --- sustainable diets --- alkaloids --- antimicrobial activity --- germplasm --- Klebsiella --- landraces --- lupanine --- Pseudomonas --- varieties --- traditional food --- antimicrobial --- bioassay --- PIRG --- fractions --- consumer culture theory --- post millennials --- cheese --- loyalty --- Cyprus --- traditional food --- traditional sausages --- conventional sausages --- traditional hams --- conventional hams --- traditional meat products --- pork --- fatty acids --- mountain --- sustainability --- altitude --- food --- health --- FTIR-ATR --- traditional Italian recipes --- chemometrics --- PCA --- Olea europaea L. --- olive oil --- geographical origin --- processing system --- harvesting time --- olive oil quality --- fatty acid composition --- sensorial evaluation --- consumer preferences --- agro-ecology biodiversity --- climate resilience --- health --- local foods --- bioactive components --- traditional recipes --- traditional dietary patterns --- edible plants --- Mediterranean --- innovative gastronomy --- tetraploid wheat --- metallomics --- macronutrients --- micronutrients --- plants adaptability --- Provolone del Monaco --- traditional foods --- biodiversity --- sustainability --- nutritional composition --- bioactive components --- typical/local foods --- environmental and socio-demographic factors --- traditional recipes --- sustainable diets --- traditional dietary patterns --- Food Composition Databases

Advances in Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Related Computational Methods

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039280520 / 9783039280537 Year: Pages: 496 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-053-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General) --- Analytical Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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In the last few decades, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has distinguished itself as one of the most rapidly advancing spectroscopic techniques. Mainly known as an analytical tool useful for sample characterization and content quantification, NIR spectroscopy is essential in various other fields, e.g. NIR imaging techniques in biophotonics, medical applications or used for characterization of food products. Its contribution in basic science and physical chemistry should be noted as well, e.g. in exploration of the nature of molecular vibrations or intermolecular interactions. One of the current development trends involves the miniaturization and simplification of instrumentation, creating prospects for the spread of NIR spectrometers at a consumer level in the form of smartphone attachments—a breakthrough not yet accomplished by any other analytical technique. A growing diversity in the related methods and applications has led to a dispersion of these contributions among disparate scientific communities. The aim of this Special Issue was to bring together the communities that may perceive NIR spectroscopy from different perspectives. It resulted in 30 contributions presenting the latest advances in the methodologies essential in near-infrared spectroscopy in a variety of applications.

Keywords

hyperspectral imaging --- variety discrimination --- Chrysanthemum --- deep convolutional neural network --- DNA --- FTIR spectroscopy --- rapid identification --- PLS-DA --- animal origin --- near-infrared hyperspectral imaging --- raisins --- support vector machine --- pixel-wise --- object-wise --- maize kernel --- hyperspectral imaging technology --- accelerated aging --- principal component analysis --- support vector machine model --- standard germination tests --- blackberries --- Rubus fructicosus --- phenolics --- carotenoids --- bioanalytical applications --- near infrared --- chemometrics --- VIS/NIR hyperspectral imaging --- corn seed --- classification --- freeze-damaged --- image processing --- imaging visualization --- wavelength selection --- NIR spectroscopy --- binary dragonfly algorithm --- ensemble learning --- quantitative analysis modeling --- NIR --- SCiO --- pocket-sized spectrometer --- cheese --- fat --- moisture --- multivariate data analysis --- Fourier-transform near-infrared spectroscopy --- glucose --- fructose --- dry matter --- partial least square regression --- Ewing sarcoma --- Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy --- FTIR --- chemotherapy --- bone cancer --- calibration transfer --- NIR spectroscopy --- PLS --- quantitative analysis model --- melamine --- FT-IR --- NIR spectroscopy --- quantum chemical calculation --- anharmonic calculation --- overtones --- combination bands --- near infrared spectroscopy --- Trichosanthis Fructus --- geographical origin --- chemometric techniques --- crude drugs --- prepared slices --- support vector machine-discriminant analysis --- near-infrared fluorescence --- fluorescent probes --- Zn(II) --- di-(2-picolyl)amine --- living cells --- cellular imaging --- near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy --- calibration transfer --- affine invariance --- multivariate calibration --- partial least squares (PLS) --- NIR --- direct model transferability --- MicroNIR™ --- SVM --- hier-SVM --- SIMCA --- PLS-DA --- TreeBagger --- PLS --- calibration transfer --- agriculture --- photonics --- imaging --- spectral imaging --- spectroscopy --- handheld near-infrared spectroscopy --- pasta/sauce blends --- partial least squares calibration --- nutritional parameters --- bootstrapping soft shrinkage --- partial least squares --- extra virgin olive oil --- adulteration --- FT-NIR spectroscopy --- near-infrared spectroscopy --- ethanol --- anharmonic quantum mechanical calculations --- isotopic substitution --- overtones --- combinations bands --- seeds vitality --- rice seeds --- near-infrared spectroscopy --- hyperspectral image --- discriminant analysis --- near-infrared spectroscopy --- counter propagation artificial neural network --- detection --- auxiliary diagnosis --- BRAF V600E mutation --- colorectal cancer --- tissue --- paraffin-embedded --- deparaffinized --- stained --- ultra-high performance liquid chromatography --- Folin–Ciocalteu --- total hydroxycinnamic derivatives --- phytoextraction --- near-infrared spectroscopy --- origin traceability --- data fusion --- Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis --- Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy --- near-infrared spectroscopy --- aquaphotomics --- water --- light --- near infrared spectroscopy --- water-mirror approach --- perturbation --- biomeasurements --- biodiagnosis --- biomonitoring --- Vitis vinifera L. --- proximal sensing --- precision viticulture --- near infrared --- chemometrics --- non-destructive sensor --- NIRS --- osteopathy --- late preterm --- brain --- splanchnic --- Raman spectroscopy --- hyperspectral imaging --- analytical spectroscopy --- counterfeit and substandard pharmaceuticals --- DFT calculations --- chemometrics --- PLSR --- API --- lumefantrine --- artemether --- antimalarial tablets --- FT-NIR spectroscopy --- PLS-R --- water --- glucose --- test set validation --- RMSEP --- hyperspectral image processing --- perfusion measurements --- clinical classifications --- n/a

Advances in Chitin/Chitosan Characterization and Applications

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ISBN: 9783038978022 9783038978039 Year: Pages: 414 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-803-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Functional advanced biopolymers have received far less attention than renewable biomass (cellulose, rubber, etc.) used for energy production. Among the most advanced biopolymers known is chitosan. The term chitosan refers to a family of polysaccharides obtained by partial de-N-acetylation from chitin, one of the most abundant renewable resources in the biosphere. Chitosan has been firmly established as having unique material properties as well as biological activities. Either in its native form or as a chemical derivative, chitosan is amenable to being processed&mdash;typically under mild conditions&mdash;into soft materials such as hydrogels, colloidal nanoparticles, or nanofibers. Given its multiple biological properties, including biodegradability, antimicrobial effects, gene transfectability, and metal adsorption&mdash;to name but a few&mdash;chitosan is regarded as a widely versatile building block in various sectors (e.g., agriculture, food, cosmetics, pharmacy) and for various applications (medical devices, metal adsorption, catalysis, etc.). This Special Issue presents an updated account addressing some of the major applications, including also chemical and enzymatic modifications of oligos and polymers. A better understanding of the properties that underpin the use of chitin and chitosan in different fields is key for boosting their more extensive industrial utilization, as well as to aid regulatory agencies in establishing specifications, guidelines, and standards for the different types of products and applications.

Keywords

aerogels --- chitosan --- ionic liquids --- ionogels --- zinc–chitosan complexes --- characterization --- bio-sorbent --- phosphate --- adsorption --- mechanism --- thermodynamic --- chitosan --- hydrogel --- phase transition --- gelation mechanism --- chitosan --- defense responses --- fruits --- nanoparticles --- plant growth --- pesticides --- Boron --- chitosan --- iron(III) hydroxide --- neodymium --- sorption --- chitin --- chitosan --- chitosan derivative --- chitin derivative --- oral care --- skin care --- hear care --- marine resources --- over-the counter-drug --- polymer carrier --- chitin --- chitosan --- nanostructured biomaterial --- polymer --- self-masking nanosphere lithography --- cicada --- chitosan --- self-assembled --- polyelectrolyte complex --- nanoparticle --- drug delivery --- Citrobacter --- biosynthesis --- bioflocculant --- chitosan --- metabolic pathway --- PEO/chitosan blend --- swelling --- mechanical properties --- wet and dried states --- chitosan --- biological activity --- medical applications --- chitosan --- PCL --- strontium --- scaffolds --- craniofacial engineering --- chitin --- chitosan --- derivatization --- controlled functionalization --- click chemistry --- graft copolymer --- cyclodextrin --- dendrimer --- ionic liquids --- chitin deacetylases --- chitosan --- chitooligosaccharides --- carbohydrate esterases --- structure --- substrate specificity --- deacetylation pattern --- binary --- chitosan --- desorption --- iron --- lead --- mercury --- salt effects --- single --- sorption competition --- chitosan supported copper --- heterogeneous catalyst --- organosilicon compound --- easily recyclable --- chitosan --- papermaking --- wet-end --- coating --- wastewater --- ionic cross-linking --- eco-friendly formulations --- thermal transition sol-gel --- drug delivery systems --- MTDSC --- DSC --- gene delivery --- non-viral vectors --- chitosan structure --- pDNA --- siRNA --- TEOS --- methylene blue --- chitosan --- modelling --- cross-linking --- interpenetrating --- XRD --- FTIR

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