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De sphaera of Johannes de Sacrobosco in the Early Modern Period

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ISBN: 9783030308339 Year: Pages: 396 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-30833-9 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Languages and Literatures --- Science (General) --- History --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-05 11:21:05
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This open access book explores commentaries on an influential text of pre-Copernican astronomy in Europe. It features essays that take a close look at key intellectuals and how they engaged with the main ideas of this qualitative introduction to geocentric cosmology. Johannes de Sacrobosco compiled his Tractatus de sphaera during the thirteenth century in the frame of his teaching activities at the then recently founded University of Paris. It soon became a mandatory text all over Europe. As a result, a tradition of commentaries to the text was soon established and flourished until the second half of the 17th century. Here, readers will find an informative overview of these commentaries complete with a rich context. The essays explore the educational and social backgrounds of the writers. They also detail how their careers developed after the publication of their commentaries, the institutions and patrons they were affiliated with, what their agenda was, and whether and how they actually accomplished it. The editor of this collection considers these scientific commentaries as genuine scientific works. The contributors investigate them here not only in reference to the work on which it comments but also, and especially, as independent scientific contributions that are socially, institutionally, and intellectually contextualized around their authors.

Child Protection in England, 1960–2000

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Book Series: Palgrave Studies in the History of Childhood ISBN: 9783319947181 Year: Pages: 215 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-94718-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: History --- Social Sciences --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-04 11:21:06
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History; Social history; Great Britain—History; Europe—History—1492-; Social policy; Childhood; Adolescence

Martin Waldseemüller’s 'Carta marina' of 1516

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ISBN: 9783030227036 Year: Pages: 150 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-22703-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: History --- Social Sciences --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-05 11:21:07
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This open access book presents the first detailed study of one of the most important masterpieces of Renaissance cartography, Martin Waldseemüller’s Carta marina of 1516. By transcribing, translating into English, and detailing the sources of all of the descriptive texts on the map, as well as the sources of many of the images, the book makes the map available to scholars in a wholly unprecedented way. In addition, the book provides revealing insights into how Waldseemüller went about making the map -- information that can’t be found in any other source. The Carta marina is the result of Waldseemüller’s radical re-evaluation of what a world map should be; he essentially started from scratch when he created it, rejecting the Ptolemaic model and other sources he had used in creating his 1507 map, and added more descriptive texts and a wealth of illustrations. Given its content, the book offers an essential reference work not only on this map, but also for anyone working in sixteenth-century European cartography.

Finding the Limits of the Limes

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Book Series: Computational Social Sciences; Simulating the Past ISBN: 9783030045760 Year: Pages: 337 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-04576-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: History --- Archaeology --- Social Sciences --- Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-04 11:21:10
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This open access book demonstrates the application of simulation modelling and network analysis techniques in the field of Roman studies. It summarizes and discusses the results of a 5-year research project carried out by the editors that aimed to apply spatial dynamical modelling to reconstruct and understand the socio-economic development of the Dutch part of the Roman frontier (limes) zone, in particular the agrarian economy and the related development of settlement patterns and transport networks in the area. The project papers are accompanied by invited chapters presenting case studies and reflections from other parts of the Roman Empire focusing on the themes of subsistence economy, demography, transport and mobility, and socio-economic networks in the Roman period. The book shows the added value of state-of-the-art computer modelling techniques and bridges computational and conventional approaches. Topics that will be of particular interest to archaeologists are the question of (forced) surplus production, the demographic and economic effects of the Roman occupation on the local population, and the structuring of transport networks and settlement patterns. For modellers, issues of sensitivity analysis and validation of modelling results are specifically addressed. This book will appeal to students and researchers working in the computational humanities and social sciences, in particular, archaeology and ancient history.

Realizing the Witch

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ISBN: 9780823274871 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_605860 Language: English
Publisher: Fordham University Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-09 11:01:13
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Benjamin Christensen’s Häxan (The Witch, 1922) stands as a singular film within the history of cinema. Deftly weaving contemporary scientific analysis and powerfully staged historical scenes of satanic initiation, confession under torture, possession, and persecution, Häxan creatively blends spectacle and argument to provoke a humanist re-evaluation of witchcraft in European history as well as the contemporary treatment of female “hysterics” and the mentally ill. In Realizing the Witch, Baxstrom and Meyers show how Häxan opens a window onto wider debates in the 1920s regarding the relationship of film to scientific evidence, the evolving study of religion from historical and anthropological perspectives, and the complex relations between popular culture, artistic expression, and concepts in medicine and psychology. Häxan is a film that travels along the winding path of art and science rather than between the narrow division of “documentary” and “fiction.” Baxstrom and Meyers reveal how Christensen’s attempt to tame the irrationality of “the witch” risked validating the very “nonsense” that such an effort sought to master and dispel. Häxan is a notorious, genre-bending, excessive cinematic account of the witch in early modern Europe. Realizing the Witch not only illustrates the underrated importance of the film within the canons of classic cinema, it lays bare the relation of the invisible to that which we cannot prove but nevertheless “know” to be there. This title was made Open Access by libraries from around the world through Knowledge Unlatched.

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