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Recombinant protein expression in microbial systems

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192946 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-294-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Biotechnology --- General and Civil Engineering --- Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:07
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With the advent of recombinant DNA technology, expressing heterologous proteins in microorganisms rapidly became the method of choice for their production at laboratory and industrial scale. Bacteria, yeasts and other hosts can be grown to high biomass levels efficiently and inexpensively. Obtaining high yields of recombinant proteins from this material was only feasible thanks to constant research on microbial genetics and physiology that led to novel strains, plasmids and cultivation strategies. Despite the spectacular expansion of the field, there is still much room for progress. Improving the levels of expression and the solubility of a recombinant protein can be quite challenging. Accumulation of the product in the cell can lead to stress responses which affect cell growth. Buildup of insoluble and biologically inactive aggregates (inclusion bodies) lowers the yield of production. This is particularly true for obtaining membrane proteins or high-molecular weight and multi-domain proteins. Also, obtaining eukaryotic proteins in a prokaryotic background (for example, plant or animal proteins in bacteria) results in a product that lack post-translational modifications, often required for functionality. Changing to a eukaryotic host (yeasts or filamentous fungi) may not be a proper solution since the pattern of sugar modifications is different than in higher eukaryotes. Still, many advances in the last couple of decades have provided to researchers a wide variety of strategies to maximize the production of their recombinant protein of choice. Everything starts with the careful selection of the host. Be it bacteria or yeast, a broad list of strains is available for overcoming codon use bias, incorrect disulfide bond formation, protein toxicity and lack of post-translational modifications. Also, a huge catalog of plasmids allows choosing for different fusion partners for improving solubility, protein secretion, chaperone co-expression, antibiotic resistance and promoter strength. Next, controlling culture conditions like temperature, inducer and media composition can bolster recombinant protein production. With this Research Topic, we aim to provide an encyclopedic account of the existing approaches to the expression of recombinant proteins in microorganisms, highlight recent discoveries and analyze the future prospects of this exciting and ever-growing field.

Bacterial pathogens in the non-clinical environment

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195589 Year: Pages: 100 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-558-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The transmission route used by many bacterial pathogens of clinical importance includes a step outside the host; thereafter refer to as the non-clinical environment (NCE). Obvious examples include foodborne and waterborne pathogens and also pathogens that are transmitted by hands or aerosols. In the NCE, pathogens have to cope with the presence of toxic compounds, sub-optimal temperature, starvation, presence of competitors and predators. Adaptation of bacterial pathogens to such stresses affects their interaction with the host. This Research Topic presents important concept to understand the life of bacterial pathogens in the NCE and provides the reader with an overview of the strategies used by bacterial pathogens to survive and replicate outside the host.

The Bacterial Cell: Coupling between Growth, Nucleoid Replication, Cell Division and Shape

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198177 Year: Pages: 324 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-817-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Bacterial Physiology was inaugurated as a discipline by the seminal research of Maaløe, Schaechter and Kjeldgaard published in 1958. Their work clarified the relationship between cell composition and growth rate and led to unravel the temporal coupling between chromosome replication and the subsequent cell division by Helmstetter et al. a decade later. Now, after half a century this field has become a major research direction that attracts interest of many scientists from different disciplines. The outstanding question how the most basic cellular processes - mass growth, chromosome replication and cell division - are inter-coordinated in both space and time is still unresolved at the molecular level. Several particularly pertinent questions that are intensively studied follow: (a) what is the primary signal to place the Z-ring precisely between the two replicating and segregating nucleoids? (b) Is this coupling related to the structure and position of the nucleoid itself? (c) How does a bacterium determine and maintain its shape and dimensions? Possible answers include gene expression-based mechanisms, self-organization of protein assemblies and physical principles such as micro-phase separations by excluded volume interactions, diffusion ratchets and membrane stress or curvature. The relationships between biochemical reactions and physical forces are yet to be conceived and discovered. This e-book discusses the above mentioned and related questions. The book also serves as an important depository for state-of-the-art technologies, methods, theoretical simulations and innovative ideas and hypotheses for future testing. Integrating the information gained from various angles will likely help decipher how a relatively simple cell such as a bacterium incorporates its multitude of pathways and processes into a highly efficient self-organized system. The knowledge may be helpful in the ambition to artificially reconstruct a simple living system and to develop new antibacterial drugs.

Plants as alternative hosts for human and animal pathogens

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195787 Year: Pages: 112 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-578-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Many of the most prevalent and devastating human and animal pathogens have part of their lifecycle out-with the animal host. These pathogens have a remarkably wide capacity to adapt to a range of quite different environments: physical, chemical and biological, which is part of the key to their success. Many of the well-known pathogens that are able to jump between hosts in different biological kingdoms are transmitted through the faecal-oral and direct transmission pathways, and as such have become important food-borne pathogens. Some high-profile examples include fresh produce-associated outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica. Other pathogens may be transmitted via direct contact or aerosols are include important zoonotic pathogens. It is possible to make a broad division between those pathogens that are passively transmitted via vectors and need the animal host for replication (e.g. virus and parasites), and those that are able to actively interact with alternative hosts, where they can proliferate (e.g. the enteric bacteria). This research topic will focus on plants as alternative hosts for human pathogens, and the role of plants in their transmission back to humans. The area is particularly exciting because it opens up new aspects to the biology of some microbes already considered to be very well characterised. One aspect of cross-kingdom host colonisation is in the comparison between the hosts and how the microbes are able to use both common and specific adaptations for each situation. The area is still in relative infancy and there are far more questions than answers at present. We aim to address important questions underlying the interactions for both the microbe and plant host in this research topic.

Advances in Prevention of Foodborne Pathogens of Public Health Concern during Manufacturing

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ISBN: 9783039219322 / 9783039219339 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-933-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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According to a report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), achieving safe and healthier foods was one of the top ten achievements of public health in the 20th century. However, considerable persisting challenges currently exist in developed nations and developing economies for further assuring the safety and security of the food supplies. According to CDC estimates, as many as 3000 American adults, as an example, and based on a recent epidemiological estimate of the World Health Organization, around 420,000 individuals around the globe, lose their lives annually due to foodborne diseases. This emphasizes the need for innovative and emerging interventions, for further prevention or mitigation of the risk of foodborne microbial pathogens during food processing and manufacturing. The current publication discusses recent advancements and progress in the elimination and decontamination of microbial pathogens during various stages of manufacturing and production. Special emphasis is placed on hurdle validation studies, investigating decontamination of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars, various serogroups of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, public health-significant serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes, and pathogenic species of Cronobacter.

Antimicrobial Resistance in Environmental Waters

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ISBN: 9783038976080 9783038976097 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-609-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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This Special Issue on Antimicrobial Resistance in Environmental Waters features 11 articles on the monitoring and surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in natural aquatic systems (i.e., reservoirs, rivers), and effluent discharge from water treatment plants to assess the effectiveness of AMR removal and resulting loads in treated waters.&nbsp;Some of the key elements of AMR studies presented in this Special Issue highlight the underlying drivers of AMR contamination in the environment and the evaluation of the hazard imposed on aquatic organisms in receiving environments through ecological risk assessments. As described in this Issue, screening antimicrobial peptide (AMP) libraries for biofilm disruption and antimicrobial candidates are promising avenues for the development of new treatment options to eradicate resistance.

Biofuels and Biochemicals Production

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ISBN: 9783038425540 9783038425557 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-555-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-10 12:39:10
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The high demand and depletion of petroleum reserves and the associated impact on the environment, together with volatility in the energy market price over the past three decades, have led to tremendous efforts in bio-based research activities, especially in biofuels and biochemicals. Most people associate petroleum with gasoline, however, approximately 6000 petroleum-derived products are available on the market today. Ironically, these petroleum-derived products have not elicited a high level of interest among the populace and media due, in part, to little awareness of the origins of these important products. Given the finite nature of petroleum, it is critical to devote substantial amounts of energy and resources on the development of renewable chemicals, as is currently done for fuels. Theoretically, the bioproduction of gasoline-like fuels and the 6000 petroleum-derived products are within the realm of possibility since our aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems contain abundant and diverse microorganisms capable of catalyzing unlimited numbers of reactions. Moreover, the fields of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering have evolved to the point that a wide range of microorganisms can be enticed or manipulated to catalyze foreign, or improve indigenous, biosynthetic reactions. To increase the concentration of products of interest and to ensure consistent productivity and yield, compatible fermentation processes must be used. Greater agricultural and chemical production during the past three decades, due in part to population increase and industrialization, has generated increasing levels of waste, which must be treated prior to discharge into waterways or wastewater treatment plants. Thus, in addition to the need to understand the physiology and metabolism of microbial catalysts of biotechnological significance, development of cost-effective fermentation strategies to produce biofuels and chemicals of interests while generating minimal waste, or better yet, converting waste into value-added products, is crucial. In this Special Issue, we invite authors to submit original research and review articles that increase our understanding of fermentation technology vis-à-vis production of liquid biofuels and biochemicals, and fermentation strategies that alleviate product toxicity to the fermenting microorganism while enhancing productivity. Further, original research articles and reviews focused on anaerobic digestion, production of gaseous biofuels, fermentation optimization using modelling and simulations, metabolic engineering, or development of tailor-made fermentation processes are welcome.

Environmental Fate of Emerging Organic Micro-Contaminants

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ISBN: 9783039213672 / 9783039213689 Year: Pages: 128 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-368-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The toxicity and fate of pharmaceuticals and other emerging micro-organic contaminants in the natural and built environments have been the focus of much research over the last twenty years. Particular focus has recently centred on the fate of antimicrobial chemicals, including antibiotics and antifungals. The occurrence of such chemicals in the environment is thought to contribute to the selection of resistance in exposed microorganisms.This Special Issue (SI) brings together a broad range of recent advances in the field of emerging micro-organic contaminants, ranging from medicinal contaminants to industrial chemicals in the environment. Notably, these range from chemical extraction and large-scale analysis to adverse effects on non-target aquatic organisms and potential risk to humans via contaminated foodstuffs. Additionally, this Special Issue also presents novel contaminant treatment/degradation methods of both physical and biological nature.

The Interplay of Microbiome and Immune Response in Health and Diseases

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ISBN: 9783039216468 / 9783039216475 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-647-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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[Increasing evidence suggests that microbiota and especially the gut microbiota (the microbes inhabiting the gut including bacteria, archaea, viruses, and fungi) plays a key role in human physiology and pathology. Recent findings indicate how dysbiosis—an imbalance in the composition and organization of microbial populations—could severely impact the development of different medical conditions (from metabolic to mood disorders), providing new insights into the comprehension of diverse diseases, such as IBD, obesity, asthma, autism, stroke, diabetes, and cancer. Given that microbial cells in the gut outnumber host cells, microbiota influences human physiology both functionally and structurally. Microbial metabolites bridge various—even distant—areas of the organism by way of the immune and hormone system. For instance, it is now clear that the mutual interaction between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain (gut–brain axis), often involves gut microbiota, indicating that the crosstalk between the organism and its microbial residents represents a fundamental aspect of both the establishment and maintenance of healthy conditions. Moreover, it is crucial to recognize that beyond the intestinal tract, microbiota populates other host organs and tissues (e.g., skin and oral mucosa). We have edited this eBook with the aim of publishing manuscripts focusing on the impact of microbiota in the development of different diseases and their associated treatments.]

Keywords

microbiota --- rheumatoid arthritis --- anti-TNF-? --- methotrexate --- etanercept --- disease activity --- microbiome --- health --- precision medicine --- genomics --- bacteriocins --- bacteriophages --- antibiotics --- gastrointestinal diseases --- dysbiosis --- gut barrier --- gut microbiota --- virus --- vaginal microbiota --- HIV --- HPV --- HSV2 --- cytokines --- chemokines --- innate immunity --- adaptive immunity --- microbiota --- autoimmunity --- etiopathogenesis --- Candida albicans --- 2,3-dihydroxy-4-methoxyBenzaldehyde --- melanin --- colitis --- anaerobic bacteria --- aerobic bacteria --- gut microbiota --- gut-liver axis --- chronic liver diseases --- fecal transplantation --- probiotics --- gut microbiota --- immunological niche --- dysbiosis --- cancer --- immune system --- cutaneous immunity --- microbiome --- Staphylococcus spp., T cells --- Staphylococcus aureus --- Staphylococcus epidermis --- commensals --- atopic dermatitis --- intravenous immunoglobulin G --- colitis --- dextran sulfate sodium --- mice --- inflammation --- cytokines --- Candida albicans --- Escherichia coli --- Enterococcus faecalis --- gut microbiota --- chemo free treatment --- lymphoid malignancies --- 16S rRNA gene --- chondroitin sulfate disaccharide --- co-occurrence network --- global network --- microbial interactions --- microbiome --- modularity --- superoxide dismutase --- gut microbiota --- macrophages --- TLR mimicry --- immune epigenetics --- metabolism --- sterile inflammation --- microbiota --- microbiome --- immunotherapy --- adoptive cell transfer (ACT) --- CAR T-cell --- TCR --- TIL --- checkpoint inhibitors --- immuno-oncology --- cancer --- diet --- n/a

Green Synthesis of Nanomaterials

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ISBN: 9783039217861 / 9783039217878 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-787-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Nanomaterials possess astonishing physical and chemical properties. They play a key role in the development of novel and effective drugs, catalysts, sensors, and pesticides, to cite just a few examples. Notably, the synthesis of nanomaterials is usually achieved with chemical and physical methods needing the use of extremely toxic chemicals or high-energy inputs. To move towards more eco-friendly processes, researchers have recently focused on so-called “green synthesis”, where microbial, animal-, and plant-borne compounds can be used as cheap reducing and stabilizing agents to fabricate nanomaterials. Green synthesis routes are cheap, environmentally sustainable, and can lead to the fabrication of nano-objects with controlled sizes and shapes—two key features determining their bioactivity.

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