Search results: Found 2

Listing 1 - 2 of 2
Sort by
Progress in Ecological Stoichiometry

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456215 Year: Pages: 382 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-621-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Ecological stoichiometry concerns the way that the elemental composition of organisms shapes their ecology. It deals with the balance or imbalance of elemental ratios and how that affects organism growth, nutrient cycling, and the interactions with the biotic and abiotic worlds. The elemental composition of organisms is a set of constraints through which all the Earth’s biogeochemical cycles must pass. All organisms consume nutrients and acquire compounds from the environment proportional to their needs. Organismal elemental needs are determined in turn by the energy required to live and grow, the physical and chemical constraints of their environment, and their requirements for relatively large polymeric biomolecules such as RNA, DNA, lipids, and proteins, as well as for structural needs including stems, bones, shells, etc. These materials together constitute most of the biomass of living organisms. Although there may be little variability in elemental ratios of many of these biomolecules, changing the proportions of different biomolecules can have important effects on organismal elemental composition. Consequently, the variation in elemental composition both within and across organisms can be tremendous, which has important implications for Earth’s biogeochemical cycles. It has been over a decade since the publication of Sterner and Elser’s book, Ecological Stoichiometry (2002). In the intervening years, hundreds of papers on stoichiometric topics ranging from evolution and regulation of nutrient content in organisms, to the role of stoichiometry in populations, communities, ecosystems and global biogeochemical dynamics have been published. Here, we present a collection of contributions from the broad scientific community to highlight recent insights in the field of Ecological Stoichiometry.

Wood Properties and Processing

Author:
ISBN: 9783039288212 / 9783039288229 Year: Pages: 350 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-822-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Wood-based materials are CO2-neutral, renewable, and considered to be environmentally friendly. The huge variety of wood species and wood-based composites allows a wide scope of creative and esthetic alternatives to materials with higher environmental impacts during production, use and disposal. Quality of wood is influenced by the genetic and environmental factors. One of the emerging uses of wood are building and construction applications. Modern building and construction practices would not be possible without use of wood or wood-based composites. The use of composites enables using wood of lower quality for the production of materials with engineered properties for specific target applications. Even more, the utilization of such reinforcing particles as carbon nanotubes and nanocellulose enables development of a new generation of composites with even better properties. The positive aspect of decomposability of waste wood can turn into the opposite when wood or wood-based materials are exposed to weathering, moisture oscillations, different discolorations, and degrading organisms. Protective measures are therefore unavoidable for many outdoor applications. Resistance of wood against different aging factors is always a combined effect of toxic or inhibiting ingredients on the one hand, and of structural, anatomical, or chemical ways of excluding moisture on the other.

Keywords

artificial weathering --- blue staining fungi --- colour change --- natural weathering --- wood --- marketing --- material preference --- urban housing --- immigrants --- building culture background --- building material --- chemical changes --- colour changes --- infrared spectroscopy --- hardwoods --- roughness --- Douglas-fir --- lumber --- non-destructive testing --- modulus of elasticity (MOE) --- stiffness --- thinning --- silviculture --- wood based composites --- hybrid beams --- bending stiffness --- flexural rigidity --- aluminium reinforcements --- wooden windows --- end-product-based fiber attribute determinates --- longitudinal stress wave velocity --- mixed-effects hierarchical linear models --- predictive performance --- bamboo grid packing --- cooling packing --- cooling tower --- mechanical properties --- fungi --- bamboo --- heat treatment --- wood --- structural changes --- nondestructive testing --- ultrasound --- Euler-Bernoulli --- modulus of elasticity --- neural network --- high frequency drying --- moisture content --- wood --- brittleness --- density --- dynamic strength --- High-Energy Multiple Impact (HEMI)–test --- Resistance to Impact Milling (RIM) --- bamboo grid packing --- cooling packing --- cooling tower --- chemical composition --- elemental composition --- FTIR --- color --- tropical woods --- brown rot --- Coniophora puteana --- colour --- CIEL*a*b* system --- technological and product innovations --- cyclic loading --- laminated wood --- deflection at the limit of proportionality --- deflection at the modulus of rupture --- wood-processing industry performance --- orthotropic --- elastic constants --- green larch --- compression --- three-point bending --- coefficient of wood bendability --- laminated wood --- technological and product innovations --- minimal curve radius --- orthotropic --- tensile modulus --- tensile strength --- moisture content --- relative humidity --- glued lamella --- flexible chair --- weight of a user --- ultimate state --- volume yield --- European hardwoods --- low quality round wood --- strength grading --- glulam --- ultrasonic wave velocity measurement --- nondestructive assessment --- wood mechanical properties --- intra-ring variation --- dynamic modulus of elasticity --- Pinus massoniana Lamb. --- phenol formaldehyde resin --- wood impregnation --- wood properties --- cell-wall mechanics --- ultrasonic speed --- poplar seedlings --- acoustic resonance --- density --- microfibril angle --- root-collar diameter --- machinability --- Eucalyptus --- plantation timber --- fiber-managed hardwoods

Listing 1 - 2 of 2
Sort by
Narrow your search