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Veterinary Bacterial Zoonoses

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455928 Year: Pages: 97 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-592-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Humans, animals and microorganisms all share the same planet, the last playing critical roles in the cycling of nitrogen and sulfur in nature and the degradation of organic materials. Unfortunately, micro-organismal populations also include infectious bacteria and viruses that cause diseases, with a few that have fatal consequences. We chose veterinary bacterial zoonoses as our Research Topic with the aim of delivering up-to-date scientific knowledge on the subject, addressing the topics of detection approaches, vaccine development and host immune response.Our Research Topic alludes to the One Health approach in addressing three important bacterial diseases, Brucella, Mycobacteria and Chlamydia. A short chapter also elaborates on a highly pathogenic field isolate of Mycobacterium avium spp. Avium and an atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O98 as evolving zoonotic risks. The cover illustration is intended to raise our awareness of the fact that pets play a role in our life as passionate and compassionate friends, but that they also pose a health risk due to carrying a bacterial or a viral zoonotic agent. We hope our Research Topic will further the pursuit of these topics and spark research in other important diseases.

Antioxidants and Second Messengers of Free Radicals

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ISBN: 9783038975335 9783038975342 Year: Pages: 194 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-534-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Medicine (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 09:35:49
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The history of science can teach modern men that our understanding of life is to a great extent based on the accuracy of the analytical methods that we use and, on our readiness to oppose dogmatic opinions, which are based on outdated methods and black/white approaches to the major questions raised by mankind in the past. The recent decades have brought a lot of new insights into the fundamentals of the active principles of reactive oxygen species that are necessary for living cells, but which also cause dangerous pathophysiological processes. Accordingly, although they were previously considered to be the most undesired toxic compounds generated as the final products of the oxidative degradation of lipids, reactive aldehydes are now considered to play important roles both in health and in major diseases. Represented mostly by 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), a substance discovered only fifty years ago, reactive aldehydes are the focus of research not only because of their toxicity but also because of their positive effects regulating the most important metabolic processes such as growth of living cells or the death of cells. Better understanding the interactions between reactive aldehydes and natural or synthetic antioxidant substances might eventually help us to better monitor, prevent and control modern diseases, thus building pillars for the development of the modern, multidisciplinary life sciences and integrative medicine of the 21st century.

Emerging Marine Biotoxins

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ISBN: 9783039215133 9783039213498 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-349-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The emergence of marine and freshwater toxins in geographical areas where they have never been reported before is a concern due to the considerable impact on (sea)food contamination, and consequently, on public health. Several groups of marine biotoxins, in particular tetrodotoxins, ciguatoxins, and palytoxins, are included among the relevant marine biotoxins that have recently emerged in several coastal areas. A similar situation has been observed in freshwater, where cyanobacterial toxins, such as microcystins, could end up in unexpected areas such as the estuaries where shellfish are cultivated. Climate change and the increased availability of nutrients have been considered as the key factors in the expansion of all of these toxins into new areas; however, this could also be due to more intense biological invasions, more sensitive analytical methods, or perhaps even an increased scientific interest in these natural contaminations. The incidences of human intoxications due to the consumption of seafood contaminated with these toxins have made their study an important task to accomplish in order to protect human health. This Special Issue has a focus on a wide variety of emerging biotoxin classes and techniques to identify and quantify them.

Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins: New Advances and Future Challenges

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ISBN: 9783039218387 / 9783039218394 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-839-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Cyanobacteria are a group of ubiquitous photosynthetic prokaryotes. Their occurrence has been increasing worldwide, due to anthropogenic activities and climate change. Several cyanobacterial species are able to synthesize a high number of bioactive molecules, among them, cyanotoxins (microcystins, cylindrospermopsin, nodularin, etc.), which are considered a health concern. For risk assessment of cyanotoxins, more scientific knowledge is required to perform adequate hazard characterization, exposure evaluation and, finally, risk characterization of these toxins. This Special Issue “Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins: New Advances and Future Challenges” presents new research or review articles related to different aspects of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins, and contributes to providing new toxicological data and methods for a more realistic risk assessment.

Keywords

cylindrospermopsin --- in vitro --- cytotoxicity --- oxidative stress --- genotoxicity --- microcystins --- taste-and-odor compounds --- water source --- drinking water treatment plant --- cyanobacterial thresholds --- arctic --- benthic mats --- cyanotoxins --- ELISA --- 16S rRNA gene --- apoptosis --- microcystin-LR (MC-LR) --- reproductive toxicity --- resveratrol --- sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) --- Aphanizomenon flos-aquae --- blue-green algae supplements --- cyanotoxins --- microcystin --- cylindrospermopsin --- saxitoxin --- cylindrospermopsin --- monoclonal antibody --- time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay --- method validation --- detection --- cyanobacteria --- cyanotoxins --- nutrient enrichment --- akinetes --- harmful algal blooms --- PCR --- phylogenetic analyses --- microcystin-LR --- Procambarus clarkii --- energy budget --- astaxanthin --- cylindrospermopsin --- anatoxin-a --- PSP toxins --- microcystins --- cyanobacteria --- Nostocales --- drinking water --- marine cyanobacteria --- cyanotoxins --- marine sponges --- secondary metabolites --- marine natural compounds --- bioassays --- Artemia salina --- Paracentrotus lividus --- hemolytic essay --- reservoir --- Yangtze estuary --- 16S rRNA gene sequencing --- shotgun metagenomic sequencing --- bacterial community --- microbial metabolisms --- [d-Leu1]Microcystin-LR --- Lithobates catesbeianus --- tadpoles --- exposure --- Histopathological evaluation --- microcystins --- cylindrospermopsin --- method validation --- UPLC-MS/MS --- lettuce --- genotoxicity --- mutagenicity --- Cylindrospermopsin --- Microcystin-LR --- mixture

Equine Viruses

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ISBN: 9783039283200 / 9783039283217 Year: Pages: 230 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-321-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has recently estimated that the world equid population exceeds 110 million. Working equids (horses, ponies, donkeys, and mules) remain essential to ensure the livelihood of poor communities around the world. In many developed countries, the equine industry has significant economical weight, with around 7 million horses in Europe alone. The close relationship between humans and equids and the fact that the athlete horse is the terrestrial mammal that travels the most worldwide after humans are important elements to consider in the transmission of pathogens and diseases, amongst equids and to other species. The potential effect of climate change on vector ecology and vector-borne diseases is also of concern for both human and animal health. In this Special Issue, we intend to explore our understanding of a panel of equine viruses, looking at their pathogenicity, their importance in terms of welfare and potential association with diseases, their economic importance and impact on performance, and how their identification can be helped by new technologies and methods.

Keywords

equine papillomaviruses --- horse --- genital wart --- phylogeny --- evolution --- Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus --- vaccine --- strain selection --- Animal Rule --- cDNA cloned virus --- virus stock propagation --- African horse sickness --- virus structure --- replication --- vaccine strategies --- Equid alphaherpesvirus 1 --- horse --- PCR --- sequencing --- ORF30 --- ORF33 --- ORF34 --- ORF68 --- equine herpesvirus type 1 --- outbreak --- respiratory disease --- abortion --- neuropathogenic strain --- myeloencephalopathy --- phylogeny --- ORF30 --- MLST --- Parvoviridae --- Eqcopivirus --- horse parvovirus-CSF --- equine hepacivirus --- equine parvovirus H --- bosavirus --- virome --- equine coronavirus --- Ireland --- enteric disease --- equine rhinitis virus A --- Thoroughbred racehorses --- loss of performance --- equine parvovirus-hepatitis --- Germany --- risk factors --- transmission --- arbovirus --- flavivirus --- hematophagous arthropod --- hepacivirus A --- hepatitis --- insects --- mosquito-borne virus --- virus transmission --- equine coronavirus --- spike S1 protein --- ELISA --- virus neutralization --- seroprevalence --- MxA --- equine Mx1 --- influenza A viruses --- polymerase activity --- interspecies transmission --- nucleoprotein --- equine influenza --- non-primate hepacivirus --- equine hepacivirus --- in utero transmission --- horse --- fetuses --- encephalitis --- arbovirus --- rabies --- Equid herpesviruses --- Borna disease virus --- West Nile virus --- horses --- n/a

New Advances on Zika Virus Research

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ISBN: 9783038977643 Year: Pages: 552 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-765-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne member of the Flaviviridae family that historically has been associated with mild febrile illness. However, the recent outbreaks in Brazil in 2015 and its rapid spread throughout South and Central America and the Caribbean, together with its association with severe neurological disorders—including fetal microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults—have changed the historic perspective of ZIKV. Currently, ZIKV is considered an important public health concern that has the potential to affect millions of people worldwide. The significance of ZIKV in human health and the lack of approved vaccines and/or antiviral drugs to combat ZIKV infection have triggered a global effort to develop effective countermeasures to prevent and/or treat ZIKV infection. In this Special Issue of Viruses, we have assembled a collection of 32 research and review articles that cover the more recent advances on ZIKV molecular biology, replication and transmission, virus–host interactions, pathogenesis, epidemiology, vaccine development, antivirals, and viral diagnosis.

Keywords

Ziks virus --- silvestrol --- antiviral --- eIF4A --- hepatocytes --- flavivirus --- arbovirus --- Zika --- sexual transmission --- testis --- prostate --- Zika virus --- ZIKV --- rhesus macaques --- Non-human primates --- NHP --- infection --- natural history --- Asian-lineage --- African-lineage --- zika virus --- ZIKV–host interactions --- viral pathogenesis --- cell surface receptors --- antiviral responses --- viral counteraction --- cytopathic effects --- microcephaly --- ZIKV-associated neurologic disorders --- Zika virus --- serology --- flavivirus --- microsphere immunoassay --- validated --- optimised --- dengue virus --- ZIKV --- reporter virus --- cryptic promoter silencing --- full-length molecular clone --- subgenomic replicon --- plasmid toxicity --- Zika virus --- dengue viruses --- flavivirus --- ELISA --- indirect immunofluorescence --- plaque reduction neutralization test --- polymerase chain reaction --- cross-reactions --- Zika virus --- flavivirus --- infectious cDNA --- replication --- gene expression --- neuropathogenesis --- viral genetic variation --- host genetic variation --- flavivirus --- Zika virus --- therapy --- host-directed antivirals --- Aedes aegypti --- RNA-seq --- insecticide resistance --- Zika virus --- detoxification and immune system responses --- Zika virus --- mosquito-borne flavivirus --- emerging arbovirus --- outbreak control --- molecular diagnostics --- laboratory preparedness --- assay standardization --- external quality assessment --- EQA --- QCMD --- flavivirus --- eye --- zika virus --- blood-retinal barrier --- ocular --- innate response --- Zika virus --- pregnancy --- fetal infection --- congenital Zika syndrome --- Asian lineage --- Zika virus --- Full-length cDNA infectious clones --- Bacterial artificial chromosome --- NS2A protein --- Zika virus --- neural progenitor cells --- neurons --- Zika virus --- antivirals --- therapeutics --- research models and tools --- flavivirus --- Zika virus (ZIKV) --- reverse genetics --- infectious clone --- full-length molecular clone --- bacterial artificial chromosome --- replicon --- infectious RNA --- Zika virus --- flavivirus --- arbovirus --- sexual transmission --- host genetic variation --- immune response --- Zika virus --- flaviviruses --- vaccines --- virus like particles --- clinical trials --- ZIKV --- NS1 protein --- Zika virus --- diagnosis --- monoclonal antibodies --- ELISA --- zika virus --- placenta cells --- microglia cells --- siRNA --- TLR7/8 --- Zika --- viral evolution --- genetic variability --- Bayesian analyses --- Zika virus --- reverse genetics --- infectious cDNA --- Tet-inducible --- MR766 --- FSS13025 --- flavivirus --- ZIKV --- NS5 --- type I IFN antagonist --- point-of-care diagnostics --- isothermal nucleic acid amplification --- nucleic acid computation --- nucleic acid strand exchange --- zika virus --- mosquito --- mosquito surveillance --- multiplex nucleic acid detection --- boolean logic-processing nucleic acid probes --- Zika virus --- flavivirus --- astrocytomas --- dsRNA --- viral fitness --- antiviral --- heme-oxygenase 1 --- Zika virus --- viral replication --- Zika virus --- antiviral compounds --- neural cells --- viral replication --- flavivirus --- Zika virus --- viral persistence --- testicular cells --- testes --- Zika virus --- prM-E proteins --- viral pathogenicity --- virus attachment --- viral replication --- viral permissiveness --- viral survival --- apoptosis --- cytopathic effects --- mutagenesis --- chimeric viruses --- human brain glial cells --- Zika virus --- flavivirus --- microRNAs --- neurons --- neuroinflammation --- anti-viral immunity --- Zika virus --- dengue virus --- secondary infections --- cross-reactions --- IgA --- IgG avidity tests

Family Iridoviridae Molecular and Ecological Studies of a Family Infecting Invertebrates and Ectothermic Vertebrates

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ISBN: 9783039215164 9783039215171 Year: Pages: 234 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-517-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Abstract

Ranaviruses and other viruses within the family Iridoviridae, infect a wide range of ecologically and commercially important ectothermic vertebrates, i.e., bony fish, amphibians, and reptiles, and invertebrates, including agricultural and medical pests and cultured shrimp and crayfish, and are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality. Understanding the impact of these various agents on diverse host species requires the combined efforts of ecologists, veterinarians, pathologists, comparative immunologists and molecular virologists. Unfortunately, investigators involved in these studies often work in discipline-specific silos that preclude interaction with others whose insights and approaches are required to comprehensively address problems related to ranavirus/iridovirus disease. Our intent here is to breakdown these silos and provide a forum where diverse researchers with a common interest in ranavirus/iridovirus biology can profitably interact. As a colleague once quipped, “Three people make a genius.” We are hoping to do something along those lines by presenting a collection of research articles dealing with issues of anti-viral immunity, identification of a potentially novel viral genus exemplified by erythrocytic necrosis virus, viral inhibition of innate immunity, identification of novel hosts for lymphocystivirus and invertebrate iridoviruses, and modelling studies of ranavirus transmission. Collectively these and others will exemplify the breadth of ongoing studies focused on this virus family.

Keywords

amphibians --- histopathology --- immunohistochemistry --- Mexico --- outbreak --- ranavirus --- risk assessment --- Iridoviridae --- frog virus 3 --- FV3 --- ranavirus --- immunofluorescence --- intracellular localization --- iridovirus --- ranavirus --- epidemiology --- antibody --- ELISA --- virus isolation --- prevalence --- native-fish conservation --- biosecurity --- endemic disease --- Unconventional T cell --- nonclassical MHC --- antiviral immunity --- interferon --- DIV1 --- SHIV --- CQIV --- Macrobrachium rosenbergii --- Macrobrachium nipponense --- Procambarus clarkii --- white head --- susceptible species --- viral load --- erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) --- viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) --- Pacific salmon --- Pacific herring --- British Columbia --- SHIV --- DIV1 --- Decapodiridovirus --- Exopalaemon carinicauda --- susceptibility --- host --- ISDL --- amphibian --- Ranavirus --- frog virus 3 --- mathematical models --- Bayesian inference --- viral immune evasion --- immunomodulators --- NF-?B --- Imd --- DNA virus --- host-pathogen interactions --- IIV-6 --- Rana grylio virus (RGV) --- iridovirus core proteins --- protein interaction --- aquatic animals --- cross-species transmission --- yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) --- co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) --- megalocytivirus --- iridovirus --- European chub --- Lymphocystis disease virus --- Artemia spp. --- viral infection --- Sparus aurata --- viral transmission --- eDNA --- Ranavirus --- Common frog --- Rana temporaria --- early detection --- virus surveillance --- n/a --- transmission modelling --- susceptible-infected (SI) models --- emerging infection --- ranavirosis --- Iridoviridae --- disease dynamics --- ranavirus --- virus binding --- heparan sulfate --- Andrias davidianus ranavirus --- Rana grylio virus --- envelope protein --- lizard --- bearded dragon --- Pogona vitticeps --- cricket --- Gryllus bimaculatus

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