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Drug-Acceptor Interactions - Modeling theoretical tools to test and evaluate experimental equilibrium effects

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ISBN: 9789197707107 9789197707114 Language: English
Publisher: Co-Action Publishing
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-18 23:34:43
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Drug-Acceptor Interactions: Modeling theoretical tools to test and evaluate experimental equilibrium effects suggests novel theoretical tools to test and evaluate drug interactions seen with combinatorial drug therapy. The book provides an in-depth, yet controversial, exploration of existing tools for analysis of dose-response studies at equilibrium or steady state.The book is recommended reading for post-graduate students and researchers engaged in the study of systems biology, networks, and the pharmacodynamics of natural or industrial drugs, as well as for medical clinicians interested in drug application and combinatorial drug therapy. Even people without mathematical skills will be able to follow the pros and cons of reaction schemes and their related distribution equations. Chapter 9 is a hands-on guide for software to plot, fit and analyze ones own data.

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Drugs --- therapy

Game-Day Gangsters: Crime and Deviance in Canadian Football

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ISBN: 9781927356531 9781927356548 9781927356555 Year: Pages: 176 Language: English
Publisher: Athabasca University Press
Added to DOAB on : 2014-08-04 17:04:53
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In the complicated interaction between sport and law, much is revealed about the perception and understanding of consent and tolerable deviance. When a football player steps onto the field, what deviations from the rules of the game are considered acceptable? And what risks has the player already accepted by voluntarily participating in the sport? In the case of Canadian football, acts of on-field violence, hazing, and performance-enhancing drug use that would be considered criminal outside the context of sport are tolerated and even promoted by team and league administrators. The manner in which league review committees and the Canadian legal system understand such actions highlights the challenges faced by those looking to protect players from the dangers of the sport. Although there has been some discussion of legal and institutional reforms dealing with crime and deviance in Canadian sport, little exists in the way of sports law, with most cases falling into the legal categories of criminal, administrative, or civil law. In Game-Day Gangsters, Fogel argues for a review of the systems by which Canadian football is governed and analyzes the reforms proposed by football leagues and by players. Juxtaposing material from interviews with football players and administrators and from media files and legal cases, he explores the discrepancies between the playersÕ own experiences and the institutional handling of disciplinary matters in junior, university, and professional football leagues across the country.

Keywords

CFL --- violence --- sport --- drugs

Nanofibres in Drug Delivery

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ISBN: 9781787350182 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.14324/111.9781787350182 Language: English
Publisher: UCL Press
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pharmacy and materia medica
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:10
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In recent years there has been an explosion of interest in the production of nanoscale fibres for drug delivery and tissue engineering. Nanofibres in Drug Delivery aims to outline to new researchers in the field the utility of nanofibres in drug delivery, and to explain to them how to prepare fibres in the laboratory.&#xD;&#xD;The book begins with a brief discussion of the main concepts in pharmaceutical science. The authors then introduce the key techniques that can be used for fibre production and explain briefly the theory behind them. They discuss the experimental implementation of fibre production, starting with the simplest possible set-up and then moving on to consider more complex arrangements. As they do so, they offer advice from their own experience of fibre production, and use examples from current literature to show how each particular type of fibre can be applied to drug delivery. They also consider how fibre production could be moved beyond the research laboratory into industry, discussing regulatory and scale-up aspects.&#xD;

Keywords

Nanofibres --- Drugs --- Drug delivery

Grey Area

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ISBN: 9781787355880 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.14324/111.9781787355880 Language: English
Publisher: UCL Press
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-05 11:21:03
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Coffeeshops are the most famous example of Dutch tolerance. But in fact, these cannabis distributors are highly regulated. Coffeeshops are permitted to break the law, but not the rules. On the premises, there cannot be minors, hard drugs or more than 500 grams. Nor can a coffeeshop advertise, cause nuisance or sell over five grams to a person in a day. These rules are enforced by surprise police checks, with violation punishable by closure.&#xD;In Grey Area, Scott Jacques examines the regulations with a huge stash of data, which he collected during two years of fieldwork in Amsterdam. How do coffeeshop owners and staff obey the rules? How are the rules broken? Why so? To what effect? The stories and statistics show that order in the midst of smoke is key to Dutch drug policy, vaporising the idea that prohibition is better than regulation. Grey Area is a timely contribution in light of the blazing reform to cannabis policy worldwide.&#xD;

Keywords

Amsterdam --- coffeeshops --- drugs --- cannabis

Recent Changes in Drug Abuse Scenario: The Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) Phenomenon

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ISBN: 9783038975076 / 9783038975083 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-508-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Neurology --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 10:04:51
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In parallel with a decrease/stabilization in the use of internationally controlled drugs, the market of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) continues increasing, year after year, with the Internet playing a pivotal role in contributing to this complex scenario. At times, although misleading, the terms ‘legal highs’ or ’research chemicals’ have been used to describe these molecules. Overall, about 5% of 19–24-year-old European people have already experimented with them, because both NPS’ intense psychoactive effects and their virtual non-detectability in routine drug screenings. Although ‘novel’ typically refers to molecules that have recently become a reason of current/potential public health concern, at times, the NPS scenario may indeed focus on pharmaceutical molecules. These may have either not entered the market, or are currently prescribed, with their potential for misuse resulting from the relating high dosages/idiosyncratic ways of self-administration. A concurrent use of a range of different NPS, and/or medications, is frequently being reported and this may be a reason of further clinical complications. Given their complex pharmacodynamics, there are increasing levels of concern about the onset of acute/chronic psychopathological associated with NPS intake. This Special Issue aims at providing an overview of a range of NPS-related issues, e.g., preclinical, epidemiological, and clinical pharmacological; the medical and psychopathological consequences associated with their intake; and, finally, the analytical chemistry and forensic analysis challenges associated with the NPS phenomenon.

Adverse Effects of Cancer Chemotherapy: Anything New to Improve Tolerance and Reduce Sequelae?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454822 Year: Pages: 245 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-482-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics --- Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Advances in anti-cancer chemotherapy over recent years have led to improved efficacy in curing or controlling many cancers. Some chemotherapy-related side-effects are well recognized and include: nausea, vomiting, bone marrow suppression, peripheral neuropathy, cardiac and skeletal muscle dysfunction and renal impairment. However, it is becoming clearer that some chemotherapy-related adverse effects may persist even in long term cancer survivors. Problems such as cognitive, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal dysfunction, and neuropathy may lead to substantial long term morbidity. Despite improvements in treatments to counteract acute chemotherapy-induced adverse effects, they are often incompletely effective. Furthermore, counter-measures for some acute side-effects and many potential longer term sequelae of anti-cancer chemotherapy have not been developed. Thus, new insights into prevalence and mechanisms of cancer chemotherapy-related side effects are needed and new approaches to improving tolerance and reduce sequelae of cancer chemotherapy are urgently needed.The present Research Topic focuses on adverse effects and sequelae of chemotherapy and strategies to counteract them.

Pathways to Recovery and Desistance

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ISBN: 9781447349310 Year: Pages: 232 Language: English
Publisher: Policy Press
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-09-11 11:21:03
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Available Open Access under CC-BY-NC licence. Putting forward a new recovery roadmap and new reform models for prisoners reintegration, Best provides an accessible guide for the implementation of community partnerships for people in recovery from substance abuse or rehabilitating from offending. Using case studies and a strengths-based approach the book emphasizes the importance of long-term recovery and the role that communities and peers play in the process. &#xD;&#xD;

Developing synaesthesia

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195794 Year: Pages: 173 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-579-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Synaesthesia is a condition in which a stimulus elicits an additional subjective experience. For example, the letter E printed in black (the inducer) may trigger an additional colour experience as a concurrent (e.g., blue). Synaesthesia tends to run in families and thus, a genetic component is likely. However, given that the stimuli that typically induce synaesthesia are cultural artefacts, a learning component must also be involved. Moreover, there is evidence that synaesthetic experiences not only activate brain areas typically involved in processing sensory input of the concurrent modality; synaesthesia seems to cause a structural reorganisation of the brain. Attempts to train non-synaesthetes with synaesthetic associations have been successful in mimicking certain behavioural aspects and posthypnotic induction of synaesthetic experiences in non-synaesthetes has even led to the according phenomenological reports. These latter findings suggest that structural brain reorganization may not be a critical precondition, but rather a consequence of the sustained coupling of inducers and concurrents. Interestingly, synaesthetes seem to be able to easily transfer synaesthetic experiences to novel stimuli. Beyond this, certain drugs (e.g., LSD) can lead to synaesthesia-like experiences and may provide additional insights into the neurobiological basis of the condition. Furthermore, brain damage can both lead to a sudden presence of synaesthetic experiences in previously non-synaesthetic individuals and a sudden absence of synaesthesia in previously synaesthetic individuals. Moreover, enduring sensory substitution has been effective in inducing a kind of acquired synaesthesia. Besides informing us about the cognitive mechanisms of synaesthesia, synaesthesia research is relevant for more general questions, for example about consciousness such as the binding problem, about crossmodal correspondences and about how individual differences in perceiving and experiencing the world develop. Hence the aim of the current Research Topic is to provide novel insights into the development of synaesthesia both in its genuine and acquired form. We welcome novel experimental work and theoretical contributions (e.g., review and opinion articles) focussing on factors such as brain maturation, learning, training, hypnosis, drugs, sensory substitution and brain damage and their relation to the development of any form of synaesthesia.

Alternative Models of Addiction

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197132 Year: Pages: 173 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-713-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychiatry --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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For much of the 20th century, theories of addictive behaviour and motivation were polarized between two models. The first model viewed addiction as a moral failure for which addicts are rightly held responsible and judged accordingly. The second model, in contrast, viewed addiction as a specific brain disease caused by neurobiological adaptations occurring in response to chronic drug or alcohol use, and over which addicts have no choice or control. As our capacity to observe neurobiological phenomena improved, the second model became scientific orthodoxy, increasingly dominating addiction research and informing public understandings of addiction. More recently, however, a dissenting view has emerged within addiction research, based partly on new scientific research and partly on progress in philosophical and psychological understandings of relevant mental phenomena. This view does not revert to treating addiction as a moral failure, but nonetheless holds that addictive behaviour is fundamentally motivated by choice and subject to at least a degree of voluntary control. On this alternative model of addiction, addictive behaviour is an instrumental means to ends that are desired by the individual, although much controversy exists with respect to the rationality or irrationality of these ends, the degree and nature of the voluntary control of addictive behaviour and motivation, the explanation of the difference between addictive and non-addictive behaviour and motivation, and, lastly, the extent to which addictive behaviour and motivation is correctly characterised as pathological or diseased. This research topic includes papers in the traditions of neuroscience, psychology, philosophy, law and social science that explore alternative understandings of addiction.

Immunomodulatory Effects of Drugs for Treatment of Immune-Related Diseases

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452880 Year: Pages: 108 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-288-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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More than 90% of diseases possess immunological abnormalities. Disorders such as inflammation, hypersensitivity, autoimmunity and immunodeficiency are simple examples of how the immune system misinterprets its surroundings and goes awry. Multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, inflammatory bowel diseases, among many others are manifestations of immune cells attacking normal tissues. On the other hand, damping the immune system leads to diseases such as cancer, AIDS, and severe combined immunodeficiency. The last ten years witnessed an explosion in developing drugs that target the immune system. Several novel monoclonal antibodies have been approved for treatment of various diseases confirming that personalized medicine approach is robust in combating diseases. Hence, the future holds great promise for using personalized and targeted medicine rather than generalized medications that, in most circumstances, proven to be ineffective and characteristically exert side effects. Approaches such as generating novel adjuvants that can stimulate the immune system without harmful side effects, targeting inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, harnessing and activating innate immune cells such as natural killer cells or dendritic cells, are examples of future approaches to treat autoimmune diseases, AIDS, and various forms of cancer resulting from chronic inflammation. More recently, targeting immune checkpoint molecules have shown therapeutic response against lung cancer and melanoma. Identifying molecules involved in autophagy is another example of how personalized medicine might help treat patients with refractory asthma and autoimmune diseases. This topic introduces the reader to these novel approaches of manipulating the immune system and developing targeted therapeutic strategies for treatment of various diseases.

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