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Distillation Control, Optimization, and Tuning: Fundamentals and Strategies

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ISBN: 9781439857489 Year: Pages: 144 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-07-29 23:58:46
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Emphasis on improved quality and performance of distilled products and the demand for reduced operating costs place a heavy burden on both the personnel responsible for profitability and the manufacturing department charged with operating the processing equipment. There have been dramatic improvements in the computer software and hardware used to simulate and model the distillation process and potential response to experimentation, but mastering the art of distillation process and control still requires solid understanding of a large body of information. With a focus on achieving product purity at low cost, Distillation Control, Optimization, and Tuning: Fundamentals and Strategies highlights core concepts. These include process variables for continuous binary distillation columns and the four basic control strategies, the distillate and bottoms product quality performance objectives, and the tuning of process control loops. Without dwelling on complex mathematical descriptions, the book presents the fundamentals of process control of a distillation column as a separation and purification unit operation. It covers the concepts and functional criteria that are critical to successful implementation of process control, as well as measurement and improvement of product quality performance. It describes how process control loops for distillation columns can be tuned for stable operation, with a balance between minimum variability from setpoint changes and excellent response to load disturbances. Designed for students, engineers, technicians, and plant operators alike, this book emphasizes the prevailing need to strike a balance between the details of hypotheses and good engineering judgment. The author outlines learning objectives at the beginning of each chapter and includes chapter-end summaries, exercises, and references to help readers acquire essential knowledge and understanding. The result is a resource that will inform future decisions for the design, operation, and troubleshooting of distillation process control systems.

Process Design, Integration, and Intensification

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ISBN: 9783038979821 9783038979838 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-983-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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With the growing emphasis on enhancing the sustainability and efficiency of industrial plants, process integration and intensification are gaining additional interest throughout the chemical engineering community. Some of the hallmarks of process integration and intensification include a holistic perspective in design, and the enhancement of material and energy intensity. The techniques are applicable for individual unit operations, multiple units, a whole industrial facility, or even a cluster of industrial plants. This book aims to cover recent advances in the development and application of process integration and intensification. Specific applications are reported for hydraulic fracturing, palm oil milling processes, desalination, reactive distillation, reaction network, adsorption processes, herbal medicine extraction, as well as process control.

Membrane and Membrane Reactors Operations in Chemical Engineering

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ISBN: 9783039210220 9783039210237 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-023-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 10:09:00
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This Special Issue is aimed at highlighting the potentialities of membrane and membrane reactor operations in various sectors of chemical engineering, based on application of the process intensification strategy. In all of the contributions, the principles of process intensification were pursued during the adoption of membrane technology, demonstrating how it may lead to the development of redesigned processes that are more compact and efficient while also being more environmental friendly, energy saving, and amenable to integration with other green processes. This Special Issue comprises a number of experimental and theoretical studies dealing with the application of membrane and membrane reactor technology in various scientific fields of chemical engineering, such as membrane distillation for wastewater treatment, hydrogen production from reforming reactions via inorganic membrane and membrane photoassisted reactors, membrane desalination, gas/liquid phase membrane separation of CO2, and membrane filtration for the recovery of antioxidants from agricultural byproducts, contributing to valorization of the potentialities of membrane operations.

Removal of Organic Pollution in Water Environment

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ISBN: 9783039218400 9783039218417 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-841-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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The development of civilization entails a growing demand for consumer goods. A side effect of the production and use of these materials is the production of solid waste and wastewater. Municipal and industrial wastewater usually contains a large amount of various organic compounds and is the main source of pollution of the aquatic environment. Therefore, the search for effective methods of wastewater and other polluted water treatment is an important element of caring for the natural environment. This book presents research on the determination and removal of environmentally hazardous organic compounds from aqueous samples. The articles included in this book describe the results of examinations, at the laboratory scale, of the efficiency of chemical as well as physical processes for the removal or degradation of selected model pollutants. Environmental studies, especially those concerning the determination of trace impurities, require effective isolation and concentration procedures. The methods used for this purpose should meet the requirements of green chemistry. The liquid phase microextraction procedures and use of electrochemical methods described in this book seem to be proper for environmental studies, as they are effective and environmentally friendly.

Hydrothermal Technology in Biomass Utilization & Conversion

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ISBN: 9783039286768 / 9783039286775 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-677-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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This book addresses a key innovative technology for decarbonization of the energy system: hydrothermal processing. It basically consists of treating biomass and wastes in a wet form, under pressure and temperature condition. This approach is becoming more and more attractive, as new feedstock and applications are appearing on the scene of bioeconomy and bioenergy. The hydrothermal processing of various type of biomass, waste, and residues, thus, raised the interest of many researchers and companies around the world, together with downstream upgrading processes and technologies: solid products as biochar, for instance, or liquid ones as crude bioliquids, are finding new market opportunities in circular economy schemes. The Special Issue collects recent innovative research works in the field, from basic to applied research, as well as pilot industrial applications/demo. It is a valuable set of references for those investing time and effort in research in the field.

Solid-Phase Microextraction

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ISBN: 9783039282623 9783039282630 Year: Pages: 266 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-263-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General) --- Analytical Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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This book covers the most recent research activities and achievements regarding to the solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique. It is a powerful sample preparation tool that addresses the new challenges of analytical laboratories. Among others, its fundamental applications involved the sampling of volatile compounds from various matrixes. The demonstrated topics ranged from aroma characterization of various fruits, essential oils to the utilization of SPME for in-tube extraction and isolation of selected compounds from complex samples followed by state-of-the-art analytical techniques.

Keywords

mango germplasm --- volatile compound --- HS-SPME-GC-MS --- multivariate analysis --- cubeb berry --- principal component analysis (PCA) --- solid-phase microextraction (SPME) --- hydro-distillation (HD) --- simultaneous distillation/extraction (SDE) --- gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O) --- SPME --- OH-PAHs --- gas-chromatography --- MTBSTFA --- in-tube solid-phase microextraction (IT-SPME) --- nanoliquid chromatography (nanoLC) --- contact trace analysis --- cannabis --- THC --- solid-phase microextraction --- air sampling --- air analysis --- volatile organic compounds --- COMSOL --- time-weighted average --- terpenes --- terpenoids --- headspace solid phase microextraction --- glandular source --- Monomorium chinense --- DI-SPME --- GC-MS --- Mediterranean fruit fly --- extraction solvent --- metabolites --- leave-one-solute-out (LOSO) cross-validation --- leave-one-out (LOO) cross-validation --- linear free-energy relationship (LFER) model --- membrane-coated fiber (MCF) approach --- partition coefficient --- quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) --- metalworking fluid --- volatile organic compounds --- torrefaction --- waste to carbon --- biochar --- municipal solid waste --- SPME --- aromatic water --- hydrolat --- volatile compounds --- metabolic fingerprint --- eucalyptol --- SPME --- retracted SPME --- TWA SPME --- GC–MS --- on-site sampling --- air quality --- air monitoring --- VOCs --- odor --- environmental analysis --- biogenic emissions --- veraison --- viticulture --- nondestructive analysis --- wine aroma --- diffusion --- grape skin --- vacuum-assisted extraction --- solid-phase microextraction --- VOCs --- historical foods --- preserves --- volatile organic compounds (VOCs) --- bisphenol-A (BPA) --- essential oil --- drying --- SPME --- true lavender --- volatile constituents --- in-tube SPME-MS/MS --- dual ligand organic-silica hybrid monolith capillary --- amino acids --- plasma samples --- pears --- HS-SPME --- volatile compounds --- GC

Recent Advances in Water and Wastewater Treatment with Emphasis in Membrane Treatment Operations

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ISBN: 9783038976240 Year: Pages: 230 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-625-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Engineering --- General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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The present Special Issue brings together recent research findings from renowned scientists in the field of water treatment and assembled contributions on advanced technologies applied to the treatment of wastewater and drinking water, with emphasis on novel membrane treatment technologies. 12 research contributions have highlighted various processes and technologies, which can achieve effective treatment and purification of wastewater and of drinking water, aiming (occasionally) for water reuse. The main topics which are analyzed are the use of novel type membranes in bioreactors, the use of modified membranes, for example using vacuum membrane distillation, the fouling of membranes, the problem of arsenic, antimony and chromium contamination in groundwaters and its removal and the use of novel technologies for more efficient ozonation.

Refrigeration Systems and Applications 2019

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ISBN: 9783039219520 9783039219537 Year: Pages: 200 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-953-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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The Special Issue “Refrigeration Systems and Applications” aims to encourage researchers to address the concerns associated with climate change and the sustainability of artificial cold production systems, and to further the transition to the more sustainable technologies and methodologies of tomorrow through theoretical, experimental, and review research on the different applications of refrigeration and associated topics.

Artificial Superintelligence: Coordination & Strategy

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ISBN: 9783039218554 / 9783039218547 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-759-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Attention in the AI safety community has increasingly started to include strategic considerations of coordination between relevant actors in the field of AI and AI safety, in addition to the steadily growing work on the technical considerations of building safe AI systems. This shift has several reasons: Multiplier effects, pragmatism, and urgency. Given the benefits of coordination between those working towards safe superintelligence, this book surveys promising research in this emerging field regarding AI safety. On a meta-level, the hope is that this book can serve as a map to inform those working in the field of AI coordination about other promising efforts. While this book focuses on AI safety coordination, coordination is important to most other known existential risks (e.g., biotechnology risks), and future, human-made existential risks. Thus, while most coordination strategies in this book are specific to superintelligence, we hope that some insights yield “collateral benefits” for the reduction of other existential risks, by creating an overall civilizational framework that increases robustness, resiliency, and antifragility.

Very High Resolution (VHR) Satellite Imagery: Processing and Applications

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ISBN: 9783039217564 9783039217571 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-757-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Recently, growing interest in the use of remote sensing imagery has appeared to provide synoptic maps of water quality parameters in coastal and inner water ecosystems;, monitoring of complex land ecosystems for biodiversity conservation; precision agriculture for the management of soils, crops, and pests; urban planning; disaster monitoring, etc. However, for these maps to achieve their full potential, it is important to engage in periodic monitoring and analysis of multi-temporal changes. In this context, very high resolution (VHR) satellite-based optical, infrared, and radar imaging instruments provide reliable information to implement spatially-based conservation actions. Moreover, they enable observations of parameters of our environment at greater broader spatial and finer temporal scales than those allowed through field observation alone. In this sense, recent very high resolution satellite technologies and image processing algorithms present the opportunity to develop quantitative techniques that have the potential to improve upon traditional techniques in terms of cost, mapping fidelity, and objectivity. Typical applications include multi-temporal classification, recognition and tracking of specific patterns, multisensor data fusion, analysis of land/marine ecosystem processes and environment monitoring, etc. This book aims to collect new developments, methodologies, and applications of very high resolution satellite data for remote sensing. The works selected provide to the research community the most recent advances on all aspects of VHR satellite remote sensing.

Keywords

road extraction --- very high-resolution image --- fast marching method --- semiautomatic --- edge constraint --- beaver mimicry --- beaver dam analogue --- QuickBird --- riparian --- stream restoration --- Worldview --- benthic mapping --- seagrass --- airborne hypespectral imagery --- Worldview-2 --- atmospheric correction --- sunglint correction --- water column correction --- dimensionality reduction techniques --- SVM classification --- linear unmixing --- building detection --- built-up areas extraction --- local feature points --- saliency index --- morphological building index --- Deformable CNN --- Faster R-CNN --- data augmentation --- occluded object detection --- very high-resolution Pléiades imagery --- canopy height model --- acquisition geometry --- forested mountain --- accuracy assessment --- remote sensing imagery --- super-resolution --- ultra-dense connection --- feature distillation --- video satellite --- compensation unit --- urban water mapping --- water index --- shadow detection --- threshold stability --- agriculture parcel segmentation --- superpixels --- consensus --- texture analysis --- multi-resolution segmentation (MRS) --- greenhouse extraction --- over-segmentation index (OSI) --- under-segmentation index (USI) --- error index of total area (ETA) --- composite error index (CEI) --- GaoFen-2 (GF-2) --- synthetic aperture radar --- landslide monitoring --- sub-pixel offset tracking --- Slumgullion landslide --- natural hazards --- large displacements --- remote sensing --- scene classification --- CNN --- capsule --- PrimaryCaps --- CapsNet --- High-resolution satellite imagery --- submesoscale --- spiral eddy --- cyanobacteria --- surface convergence --- western Baltic Sea

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MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (11)

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