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Human Skin Cancer, Potential Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets

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ISBN: 9789535127109 9789535127116 Year: Pages: 150 DOI: 10.5772/61922 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Abstract

Skin cancers, basal and squamous cell carcinomas, malignant melanomas, and Merkel cell carcinomas, constitute arguably the most common and increasingly prevalent human neoplasms. Here we discuss the epigenetic changes in DNA and chromatin, which are increasingly associated with melanoma. Several chapters focus on the posttranscriptional modification of the proteins at the melanocyte cell surface, their role in tumorigenesis, and their potential as therapeutic targets. Specifically, extracellular modifications of integrins, glycosylation of cell surface proteins, and changes of cadherins are presented. In a very interesting approach, a potential to target the mitochondria of melanoma cells is investigated. In conclusion, this volume presents various aspects of human skin cancers, components of the large worldwide effort to combat and eradicate this growing health concern.

Human Skin Cancers - Pathways, Mechanisms, Targets and Treatments

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ISBN: 9781789230949 9781789230956 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: 10.5772/68061 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Abstract

Human skin cancers, the most common type of tumors, represent a significant health burden. The deadliest is unquestionably melanoma. Half of melanomas have an activating mutation in the BRAF gene, prompting development of novel drugs, vemurafenib and dabrafenib, specifically targeting mutated BRAF. Trametinib and cobimetinib, which block MEK, a BRAF effector protein, have been used in combination with BRAF inhibitors. A promising new melanoma treatment is immunotherapy, approach that boosts patient's own immune system to attack cancer. Pembrolizumab and nivolumab inhibit PD-1, whereas Ipilimumab targets CTLA-4, another immunity check point, to boost the immune response. Here we focus on pathways, mechanisms, targets and treatments of human skin cancers, with particular emphasis on the new developments in the research on melanomas.

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