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Electrochemical SPM study of 2D phase and 3D phase formation of Zn at the ionic liquid / Au(111) interface [online]

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ISBN: 3937300090 Year: DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1132004 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58

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Zn electrodeposition in the under- (UPD) and overpotential (OPD) ranges by means of in-situ Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) was examined, supported by in-situ cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometrie. The underpotential deposition of Zn follows a layer-by-layer growth. For the first time the formation of three successive Zn monolayers has been observed in the UPD range. It has been shown, that the UPD of Zn is complicated due to surface alloying. The same growth mechanism extends from the UPD into OPD range until Al bulk deposition sets in. The UPD of Al at 100 mV vs. Zn/Zn(II) is marked by Moiré pattern formation. For the first time in this system the effective tunneling barrier f has been measured by STS. A first insight into the 2D phase formation of electrodeposited Zn at the electrolyte / electrode interface was obtained from STM images at various times and potentials. Before a coherent layer is formed wormlike structures are observed characteristic of spinodal decomposition. This implies a first order phase transition, which has been resolved here for the first time for 2D electrodeposition.

New Insights into Microbial Ecology through Subtle Nucleotide Variation

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199884 Year: Pages: 133 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-988-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The 16S ribosomal RNA gene commonly serves as a molecular marker for investigating microbial community composition and structure. Vast amounts of 16S rRNA amplicon data generated from environmental samples thanks to the recent advances in sequencing technologies allowed microbial ecologists to explore microbial community dynamics over temporal and spatial scales deeper than ever before. However, widely used methods for the analysis of bacterial communities generally ignore subtle nucleotide variations among high-throughput sequencing reads and often fail to resolve ecologically meaningful differences between closely related organisms in complex microbial datasets. Lack of proper partitioning of the sequencing data into relevant units often masks important ecological patterns. Our research topic contains articles that use oligotyping to demonstrate the importantance of high-resolution analyses of marker gene data, and providides further evidence why microbial ecologists should open the "black box" of OTUs identified through arbitrary sequence similarity thresholds.

Morphologically complex words in the mind/brain

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198030 Year: Pages: 230 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-803-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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The question of how morphologically complex words (assign-ment, listen-ed) are represented and processed in the brain has been one of the most hotly debated topics in the cognitive neuroscience of language. Do complex words engage cortical representations and processes equivalent to single lexical objects or are they processed as sequences of separate morpheme-like units? Research on morphological processing has suggested that adults make efficient use of both lexical (i.e., whole word) storage and retrieval, as well as combinatorial computation in processing morphologically complex words. Psycholinguistic studies have demonstrated that processing of complex words can be affected both by properties of the morphemes and the whole words, such as their frequency, transparency, and regularity. Furthermore, this research has been informative about the time-course of complex word recognition and production, and the role of morphological structure in these processes. At the neural level, left-hemisphere inferior frontal and superior temporal areas, and negative-going event-related potentials, have been consistently associated with morphological processing. While most previous research has been done on the recognition of morphologically complex words in adult native speakers, much less is known about neurocognitive processes involved in the on-line production of morphologically complex words, and even less on morphological processing in children and non-native speakers. Moreover, we have limited understanding of how linguistically distinct morphological processes, e.g. inflectional (listen-ed) versus derivational (assign-ment), are handled by the cortical language networks. This e-book gives an up-to-date overview of the questions currently addressed in the field of morphological processing. It highlights the significance of morphological information in language processing, both written and spoken, as assessed by a variety of methods and approaches. It also points to a number of unresolved issues, and provides future directions for research in this key area of cognitive neuroscience of language.

Keywords

morphology --- derivation --- inflection --- Compound --- L2 --- Dyslexia --- ERP --- MEG --- semantics --- decomposition

Information Decomposition of Target Effects from Multi-Source Interactions

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038970156 9783038970163 Year: Pages: 336 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-016-3 Language: englisch
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mathematics --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-04 13:22:10
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Using Shannon information theory to analyse the contributions from two source variables to a target, for example, we can measure the information held by one source about the target, the information held by the other source about the target, and the information held by those sources together about the target. Intuitively, however, there is strong desire to measure further notions of how this directed information interaction may be decomposed, e.g., how much information the two source variables hold redundantly about the target, how much each source variable holds uniquely, and how much information can only be discerned by synergistically examining the two sources together.The absence of measures for such decompositions into redundant, unique and synergistic information is arguably the most fundamental missing piece in classical information theory. Triggered by the formulation of the Partial Information Decomposition framework by Williams and Beer in 2010, the past few years have witnessed a concentration of work by the community in proposing, contrasting, and investigating new measures to capture these notions of information decomposition.This Special Issue seeks to bring together these efforts, to capture a snapshot of the current research, as well as to provide impetus for and focused scrutiny on newer work, present progress to the wider community and attract further research. Our contributions present: several new approaches for measures of such decompotions; commentary on properties, interpretations and limitations of such approaches; and applications to empirical data (in particular to neural data).

Econometrics and Income Inequality

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ISBN: 9783038973669 9783038973676 Year: Pages: 322 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-367-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-26 12:04:46
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This Special Issue is devoted to the econometric analysis of income inequality and income distributions. Given the recent surge of inequality research, this Special Issue seeks to combine both theoretical and applied contributions which advance the econometric analysis of income inequality and income distributions. Possible topics include, but are not limited to, statistical inference for inequality measurement, inequality measurement with complex survey data, parametric or nonparametric modeling of income distributions, statistical decomposition methodology, methods to investigate the determinants of distributional change, causal inference in inequality measurement, and applications of such methods to substantive research questions in different fields of economics.

Economic Inequality in Latin America

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Book Series: Goettinger Studien zur Entwicklungsoekonomik / Goettingen Studies in Development Economics ISBN: 9783631639764 Year: Pages: 172 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics --- Political Science --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:58
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Inequality in Latin America is very large and there is a great desire for greater social justice, inclusion and equal opportunities. In order to contribute to the understanding of such developments, this volume addresses the problem of economic inequality in Paraguay, Honduras and Chile. The studies show from different angles how an adverse family background has permanent negative effects on employment, wages and labour mobility, particularly in the presence of structural economic changes. In general, this book is a contribution to understand why inequality is highly persistent in Latin America, a place where low levels of income, poverty and vulnerability are likely to be passed on to the next generation.

The Roots of Verbal Meaning

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Book Series: Oxford Studies in Theoretical Linguistics ISBN: 9780198855781 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198855781.003.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: University of Manchester||National Science Foundation - BCS-1451765
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-03-29 11:21:06
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This book explores possible and impossible word meanings, with a specific focus on the meanings of verbs. It adopts the now common view that verb meanings consist at least partly of an event structure, made up of an event template describing the verb’s broad temporal and causal contours that occurs across lots of verbs and groups them into semantic and grammatical classes, plus an idiosyncratic root describing specific, real world states and actions that distinguish verbs with the same template. While much work has focused on templates, less work has addressed the truth conditional contributions of roots, despite the importance of a theory of root meaning in fully defining the predictions event structural approaches make. This book addresses this lacuna, exploring two previously proposed constraints on root meaning: The Bifurcation Thesis of Roots, whereby roots never introduce the meanings introduced by templates, and Manner/Result Complementarity, which has as a component that roots can describe either a manner or a result state but never both at the same time. Two extended case studies, on change-of-state verbs and ditransitive verbs of caused possession, show that neither hypothesis holds, and that ultimately there may be no constraints on what a root can mean. Nonetheless, the book argues that event structures still have predictive value, and it presents a new theory of possible root meanings and how they interact with event templates that produces a new typology of possible verbs, albeit one where not just templates but also roots determine systematic semantic and grammatical properties.

Machine Learning, Low-Rank Approximations and Reduced Order Modeling in Computational Mechanics

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ISBN: 9783039214099 9783039214105 Year: Pages: 254 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-410-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The use of machine learning in mechanics is booming. Algorithms inspired by developments in the field of artificial intelligence today cover increasingly varied fields of application. This book illustrates recent results on coupling machine learning with computational mechanics, particularly for the construction of surrogate models or reduced order models. The articles contained in this compilation were presented at the EUROMECH Colloquium 597, « Reduced Order Modeling in Mechanics of Materials », held in Bad Herrenalb, Germany, from August 28th to August 31th 2018. In this book, Artificial Neural Networks are coupled to physics-based models. The tensor format of simulation data is exploited in surrogate models or for data pruning. Various reduced order models are proposed via machine learning strategies applied to simulation data. Since reduced order models have specific approximation errors, error estimators are also proposed in this book. The proposed numerical examples are very close to engineering problems. The reader would find this book to be a useful reference in identifying progress in machine learning and reduced order modeling for computational mechanics.

Keywords

parameter-dependent model --- surrogate modeling --- tensor-train decomposition --- gappy POD --- heterogeneous data --- elasto-viscoplasticity --- archive --- model reduction --- 3D reconstruction --- inverse problem plasticity --- data science --- model order reduction --- POD --- DEIM --- gappy POD --- GNAT --- ECSW --- empirical cubature --- hyper-reduction --- reduced integration domain --- computational homogenisation --- model order reduction (MOR) --- low-rank approximation --- proper generalised decomposition (PGD) --- PGD compression --- randomised SVD --- nonlinear material behaviour --- machine learning --- artificial neural networks --- computational homogenization --- nonlinear reduced order model --- elastoviscoplastic behavior --- nonlinear structural mechanics --- proper orthogonal decomposition --- empirical cubature method --- error indicator --- symplectic model order reduction --- proper symplectic decomposition (PSD) --- structure preservation of symplecticity --- Hamiltonian system --- reduced order modeling (ROM) --- proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) --- enhanced POD --- a priori enrichment --- modal analysis --- stabilization --- dynamic extrapolation --- computational homogenization --- large strain --- finite deformation --- geometric nonlinearity --- reduced basis --- reduced-order model --- sampling --- Hencky strain --- microstructure property linkage --- unsupervised machine learning --- supervised machine learning --- neural network --- snapshot proper orthogonal decomposition

Poverty, Income Growth and Inequality in Paraguay During the 1990s

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Book Series: Goettinger Studien zur Entwicklungsoekonomik / Goettingen Studies in Development Economics ISBN: 9783631572016 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3726/b13889 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:27
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The Paraguayan economy did not suffer debt crises in the eighties and had significant growth rates in the second half on the seventies, but poverty remained a problem. Understanding the performance and spatial distribution of poverty and inequality over a period of more than ten years can shed new light on structural causes behind what seems to be a low growth – high poverty – high inequality trap in Paraguay. How did poverty and inequality change during the 1990s. Did inequality reduce income growth? What were the growth determinants and what are the main forces driving inequality changes? These are the questions being answered in this book.

China in Transition

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Book Series: Hohenheimer volkswirtschaftliche Schriften ISBN: 9783631633281 Year: Pages: 236 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:59
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In China, inequality in social welfare is of rising political concern. This case study analyzes the determinants of well-being of rural households in Hebei using a secondary panel data set (1986 to 2006). One key question is how well-being was affected by institutional changes in times of societal transition. Based on population grouping, the author analyzes poverty and income development. The study reveals impacts of new possibilities to provide labor outside the own farm on the allocation of households’ labor time and the stability of full- and part-time farming over time. The assessments ground on agricultural household models, microeconomic concepts of labor allocation, and welfare theories. Different methodologies, e.g. inequality decomposition or hazard analysis, are applied.

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