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4. Who should decide for critically ill neonates and how? (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9781760020590 Year: Pages: 19 Language: English
Publisher: The Federation Press Grant: Wellcome Trust
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:12
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This chapter distinguishes between essential features of the zone of parental discretion and the longstanding concept of a grey zone in neonatal treatment decision-making. The grey zone has traditionally described a gestational age range where the outcomes of medical treatment for newborn infants are uncertain, and therefore parents have discretion to choose between resuscitation or palliative care options. In contrast, the ZPD refers to a space where parents may make decisions for their child (not restricted to newborns) even if their decisions conflict with the decisions a clinician would make. A key difference between the two zones is that the boundaries of the grey zone are defined on the basis of published evidence about medical outcomes, whereas the boundaries of the ZPD are based on the broader but arguably vaguer notion of harm to the particular child. The grey zone has usually been defined in terms of gestational age. Wilkinson argues instead for a prognosis-based grey zone in neonatal treatment decision-making, which incorporates a range of prognostic factors rather than focusing solely on gestational age.

Keywords

Neonates --- ill --- decisions

Understanding the Human Factor of the Energy Transition: Mechanisms Underlying Energy-Relevant Decisions and Behaviors

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198801 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-880-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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An increasing number of countries are shifting toward sustainable energy economies, emphasizing the use of renewable energy sources, increases in energy efficiency and the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. The success of such an energy transition will depend not only on the development of new energy technologies, but also on major changes in the patterns of individual energy-related decisions and behaviors resulting in substantial reductions in energy demand. Consequently, the behavioral sciences can make important contributions to the energy transition by increasing our understanding of the multiple factors and mechanisms that underlie individual as well as group-based decisions and behaviors in the energy domain and by creating a basis for systematic interventions that reduce energy usage. Many different types of relevant behaviors and decisions need to be considered in this context, including decisions to invest in energy-efficient household equipment, adjustments of energy-critical habits related to heating, eating, or mode of transportation, and participation in the political discourse related to questions of energy. An integration of the expertise of the different disciplines of the behavioral sciences is thus needed to comprehensively investigate the impact of the different drivers and barriers that may determine energy-related decisions and behaviors, including economic factors such as price level, social factors such as norms, communication patterns and social learning processes, and individual factors such as values, attitudes, beliefs, heuristics, affective biases and emotions. The potential impact of these factors on the success of the energy transition is considerable: for example, a recent projection of the energy demand in Switzerland until 2050 has estimated the reduction potential related to psychological and sociological factors between 0% and 30%, depending on which behavioral changes will be implemented in society. Increased research efforts from the behavioral sciences are required to ensure that the full reduction potential can be achieved. This Research Topic brings together contributions from different disciplines such as psychology, affective science, behavioral economics, economics, sociology, consumer behavior, business science, sociology, and political science, that improve our understanding of the many factors underlying decision-making and behavior in the energy domain, and contribute to the development of targeted interventions that aim at reducing energy demand based on these factors.

Teacher Thinking & Professional Action

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ISBN: 9780203012505 9780415362238 9781138983625 9781134232307 9781134232291 9781134232253 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203012505 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Education
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:10
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Over the past twenty years the International Study Association on Teachers and Teaching (ISATT) has become world-renowned as an organisation dedicated to the discussion of current thinking in educational policy and practice. As such, the ideas aired at ISATT conferences are of the greatest significance to today's educational practitioners. This book satisfies the demand for a lasting record of ISATT's illuminating discussions on the theme. It is based on a selection of papers presented at their third bi-annual conference and has been updated by each contributor to include their current thoughts and opinions. Containing nineteen articles, each an in-depth examination of the topic, it is divided into four sections: conceptual frames for teacher thought and action methods and approaches to the study of teacher though and action teacher judgment and evaluation of students teacher thinking and teacher education. Broad in theme, international in scope and detailed this book is essential and enlightening reading for anyone with a serious interest in the ongoing development of educational thought.

The Politics of Micro-Decisions: Edward Snowden, Net Neutrality, and the Architectures of the Internet

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Book Series: Digital Cultures ISBN: 9783957960405 9783957960412 Year: Pages: 128 DOI: 10.14619/005 Language: English
Publisher: meson press
Subject: Media and communication
Added to DOAB on : 2017-01-15 14:40:54
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Be it in the case of opening a website, sending an email, or high-frequency trading, bits and bytes of information have to cross numerous nodes at which micro-decisions are made. These decisions concern the most efficient path through the network, the processing speed, or the priority of incoming data packets. Despite their multifaceted nature, micro-decisions are a dimension of control and surveillance in the twenty-first century that has received little critical attention. They represent the smallest unit and the technical precondition of a contemporary network politics – and of our potential opposition to it. The current debates regarding net neutrality and Edward Snowden’s revelation of NSA surveillance are only the tip of the iceberg. What is at stake is nothing less than the future of the Internet as we know it.

Ageing Population Risks

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ISBN: 9783038428244 9783038428237 Year: Pages: VI, 224 Language: englisch
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-09 14:53:44
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An ageing population is a major challenge for every country in the world arising from the declining fertility rate and increasing life expectancy. A longevity risk (the adverse outcome of people living longer than expected) exacerbated by declining equity returns coupled with the record low interest rate environments has significant implications for societies and manifests as a systematic risk for providers of retirement income products. The aim of this special issue is to highlight advances inquantitative modelling of risks related to ageing population problems. It is aimed at practitioners and regulators in insurance, banking and pension industries; academic researchers; and advanced graduate students in the area.

China in Transition

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Book Series: Hohenheimer volkswirtschaftliche Schriften ISBN: 9783631633281 Year: Pages: 236 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:59
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In China, inequality in social welfare is of rising political concern. This case study analyzes the determinants of well-being of rural households in Hebei using a secondary panel data set (1986 to 2006). One key question is how well-being was affected by institutional changes in times of societal transition. Based on population grouping, the author analyzes poverty and income development. The study reveals impacts of new possibilities to provide labor outside the own farm on the allocation of households’ labor time and the stability of full- and part-time farming over time. The assessments ground on agricultural household models, microeconomic concepts of labor allocation, and welfare theories. Different methodologies, e.g. inequality decomposition or hazard analysis, are applied.

Diversità e discorso giuridico. Temi per un dialogo interdisciplinare su diritti e giustizia in tempo di transizione

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Historia del Derecho ISSN: 22555137 ISBN: 9788490859810 Year: Volume: 48 Pages: 287 Language: Italian
Publisher: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Figuerola Institute of Social Science History
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2016-11-02 12:07:43
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The relationship between law and diversity was difficult and dialectical throughout the centuries of the legal modernity. Yet to mark its routes it was not a concern for diversity since at the core of its developments there was the issue of individual before the social issue. As a matter of fact, diversity was considered extensively in modern law, but always in an instrumental way. At present this juridical approach shows some limitations, especially in the taking into account the link with the problem of protection of fundamental and human rights. Therefore, it seems appropriate to open a discussion on the issue, assuming diversity, despite its plurality of meanings, as a single topic area from which to start questioning the law. This volume is an attempt in this direction. Taking its cue from these statements and adopting a multidisciplinary perspective, it aims to explore aspects of the complex relationship between law and diversity, assuming as a framework of reference the problem of rights and justice.--------È in un continuo e sofferto rapporto dialettico che diritto e diversità si sono reciprocamente inseguiti lungo i secoli della modernità giuridica. Eppure non è stata una preoccupazione per la diversità a segnarne gli itinerari. Di essa il diritto moderno si è molto occupato ma in chiave sempre strumentale, avendo posto al centro dei suoi svolgimenti la questione dell’individuo prima che della società. Al contempo la fase attuale evidenzia una certa usura degli strumenti giuridici tradizionali e un limite complessivo di tale approccio al problema, soprattutto se si considerano i nessi della questione con la tutela dei diritti fondamentali e umani. Appare, dunque, opportuno avviare una riflessione complessiva sulla questione, assumendo la diversità, pur nella sua pluralità di valenze, come ambito tematico unitario e come categoria a partire dalla quale interrogare il diritto. Il presente volume, costituisce un tentativo in tale direzione. Esso - prendendo le mosse da tali constatazioni e avvalendosi di molteplici punti di vista disciplinari - si propone di esplorare aspetti del complesso rapporto tra diritto e diversità, assumendo come cornice di riferimento la questione dei diritti e della giustizia.

Imagining Law: Essays in Conversation with Judith Gardam

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ISBN: 9781925261318 Year: DOI: 10.20851/essays-gardam Language: English
Publisher: University of Adelaide Press
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2017-01-17 11:01:17
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By any measure, Judith Gardam has accomplished much in her professional life and is rightly acknowledged by scholars throughout the world as an expert in her many fields of diverse interest — including international law, energy law and feminist theory. This book celebrates her academic life and work with twelve essays from leading scholars in Gardam’s fields of expertise.

Law as Change: Engaging with the Life and Scholarship of Adrian Bradbrook

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ISBN: 9781922064806 Year: Pages: 322 DOI: 10.20851/law-change Language: English
Publisher: University of Adelaide Press
Subject: Law --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2014-10-20 03:56:10
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In 2011, Professor Adrian J Bradbrook retired from a distinguished scholarly career spanning over forty years. During this time, he made a significant contribution to teaching and scholarship not only in property law — specifically to leasehold tenancies law and easements and restrictive covenants — but also to energy law, especially the emerging and growing field of solar energy. This book brings together those people who worked closely with Bradbrook, each an expert in their own right, to honour a career by critically engaging with the contributions Bradbrook made to property and energy law. Each author has chosen a topic that both fits with their own cutting-edge research and explores the related contributions made by Bradbrook. Most unusually, this collection ranges widely across property law, energy law and human rights.

Tools, Methodologies and Techniques Applied to Sustainable Supply Chains

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ISBN: 9783039283187 9783039283194 Year: Pages: 296 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-319-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Supply chains are currently globalized and companies operate internationally owing to the fact that raw materials, production processes, and the consumption of the final products are carried out in different countries. This implies high material and information flow, which incurs high costs associated with the supply chain and logistics, sometimes up to 60% of the total cost of the product. Therefore, companies seek to optimize their resources to reduce these costs and improve sustainability in a globalized market. This book, entitled Tools, Methodologies and Techniques Applied to Sustainable Supply Chains, contains 15 chapters that report case studies applied to industrial and service sectors. The authors come from areas such as Mexico, Colombia, Italy, Sweden, Slovakia, China, and Australia. They indicate how managers make use of tools and techniques to solve problems associated with supply chains to reduce their cost and remain competitive. A great effort has been made to analyze this problem, and the methodologies are clearly described here to facilitate the reproducibility of each technique and tool. This was done in the hope that hoping that they may one day be applied in more companies.

Keywords

tire waste management --- reverse logistics --- green logistics --- Mexico --- Russia --- remanufacturing --- closed-loop supply chain --- warranty decision --- contract coordination --- supply chain innovation --- systematic review --- social network analysis --- collaboration --- attributes --- green manufacturing --- benefits --- green supply chain --- sensitivity analysis --- sustainability --- genetic algorithm --- layout planning --- model --- sustainable manufacturing --- environmental assessment tool --- green lean --- pallet management strategy --- reusable handling system --- closed-loop network --- what-if analysis --- environmental impact --- electricity markets --- alpha-stable distribution --- alpha-stable regression --- electricity prices --- waste management --- residue collection --- urban logistics --- design of territories --- supply chain management --- hospital supply chain --- sustainable supply chain --- hospital logistics --- hospital sustainability --- healthcare logistics --- sustainable hospital management --- Sugarcane Crop Residues (SCRs) --- cogeneration --- optimization of bioenergy supply chain decisions --- delivering products --- travel time uncertainty --- fuzzy logic --- fuzzy linear programming --- urban road network --- reliability --- green supplier selection --- contract farming --- life cycle assessment --- environmental collaboration --- multi-objective optimization --- agro-food supply chain --- system dynamics --- systems thinking --- causal models --- healthcare services --- bearability --- sustainability --- MIPL --- VRP --- star network --- optimal plant location

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