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Resilience: A New Paradigm of Nuclear Safety: From Accident Mitigation to Resilient Society Facing Extreme Situations

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ISBN: 9783319587677 9783319587684 Year: Pages: 356 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-58768-4 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-24 15:37:45
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This book summarizes presentations and discussions from the two-day international workshop held at UC Berkeley in March 2015, and derives questions to be addressed in multi-disciplinary research toward a new paradigm of nuclear safety. The consequences of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011 have fuelled the debate on nuclear safety: while there were no casualties due to radiation, there was substantial damage to local communities. The lack of common understanding of the basics of environmental and radiological sciences has made it difficult for stakeholders to develop effective strategies to accelerate recovery, and this is compounded by a lack of effective decision-making due to the eroded public trust in the government and operators. Recognizing that making a society resilient and achieving higher levels of safety relies on public participation in and feedback on decision-making, the book focuses on risk perception and mitigation in its discussion of the development of resilient communities.

Public Policy: Why ethics matters

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ISBN: 9781921666759 Year: Pages: 311 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_459474 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2012-06-14 11:46:24
License: ANU Press

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Ethics is a vigorously contested field. There are many competing moral frameworks, and different views about how normative considerations should inform the art and craft of governmental policy making. What is not in dispute, however, is that ethics matters. The ethical framework adopted by policy analysts and decision makers not only shapes how policy problems are defined, framed and analysed, but also influences which ethical principles and values are taken into account and their weighting. As a result, ethics can have a profound impact, both on the character of the policy process and the choices made by decision makers. Public Policy – Why Ethics Matters brings together original contributions from leading scholars and practitioners with expertise in various academic disciplines, including economics, philosophy, physics, political science, public policy and theology. The volume addresses three main issues: fist, the ethical considerations that should inform the conduct of public officials and the task of policy analysis; second, the ethics of climate change; and third, ethics and economic policy. While the contributors have varying views on these important issues, they share a common conviction that the ethical dimensions of public policy need to be better understood and given proper attention in the policy-making process.

Dynamics of decision making: from evidence to preference and belief

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192700 Year: Pages: 259 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-270-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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At the core of the many debates throughout cognitive science concerning how decisions are made are the processes governing the time course of preference formation and decision. From perceptual choices, such as whether the signal on a radar screen indicates an enemy missile or a spot on a CT scan indicates a tumor, to cognitive value-based decisions, such as selecting an agreeable flatmate or deciding the guilt of a defendant, significant and everyday decisions are dynamic over time. Phenomena such as decoy effects, preference reversals and order effects are still puzzling researchers. For example, in a legal context, jurors receive discrete pieces of evidence in sequence, and must integrate these pieces together to reach a singular verdict. From a standard Bayesian viewpoint the order in which people receive the evidence should not influence their final decision, and yet order effects seem a robust empirical phenomena in many decision contexts. Current research on how decisions unfold, especially in a dynamic environment, is advancing our theoretical understanding of decision making. This Research Topic aims to review and further explore the time course of a decision - from how prior beliefs are formed to how those beliefs are used and updated over time, towards the formation of preferences and choices and post-decision processes and effects. Research literatures encompassing varied approaches to the time-scale of decisions will be brought into scope: a) Speeded decisions (and post-decision processes) that require the accumulation of noisy and possibly non-stationary perceptual evidence (e.g., randomly moving dots stimuli), within a few seconds, with or without temporal uncertainty. b) Temporally-extended, value-based decisions that integrate feedback values (e.g., gambling machines) and internally-generated decision criteria (e.g., when one switches attention, selectively, between the various aspects of several choice alternatives). c) Temporally extended, belief-based decisions that build on the integration of evidence, which interacts with the decision maker's belief system, towards the updating of the beliefs and the formation of judgments and preferences (as in the legal context). Research that emphasizes theoretical concerns (including optimality analysis) and mechanisms underlying the decision process, both neural and cognitive, is presented, as well as research that combines experimental and computational levels of analysis.

Personality and Cognition in Economic Decision Making

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452361 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-236-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Psychologists studying cognitive processes and personality have increasingly benefited from the wealth of theory, methodology, and decision making paradigms used in economics and game theory. Similarly, for the economists, personality traits and basic cognitive processes offer a set of coherent explanatory constructs in economic behavior. Given the debate on preference invariance and behavioral consistency across contexts and domains, the papers in this topic shed light on the existence and effect of stable sets of idiosyncratic features on economic decision-making. While the effects of personality and cognition on economic decisions remain under-explored, the papers contributed in this topic offer more than a stimulus for further research. The general message could be that personality and cognitive processes offer the stable idiosyncratic ground on which individual decisions are made.

Elements of Robotics

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ISBN: 9783319625324 9783319625331 Year: Pages: 308 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62533-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-24 12:52:53
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This book bridges the gap between playing with robots in school and studying robotics at the upper undergraduate and graduate levels to prepare for careers in industry and research. Robotic algorithms are presented formally, but using only mathematics known by high-school and first-year college students, such as calculus, matrices and probability. Concepts and algorithms are explained through detailed diagrams and calculations.Elements of Robotics presents an overview of different types of robots and the components used to build robots, but focuses on robotic algorithms: simple algorithms like odometry and feedback control, as well as algorithms for advanced topics like localization, mapping, image processing, machine learning and swarm robotics. These algorithms are demonstrated in simplified contexts that enable detailed computations to be performed and feasible activities to be posed. Students who study these simplified demonstrations will be well prepared for advanced study of robotics.The algorithms are presented at a relatively abstract level, not tied to any specific robot. Instead a generic robot is defined that uses elements common to most educational robots: differential drive with two motors, proximity sensors and some method of displaying output to the user.The theory is supplemented with over 100 activities, most of which can be successfully implemented using inexpensive educational robots. Activities that require more computation can be programmed on a computer. Archives are available with suggested implementations for the Thymio robot and standalone programs in Python.

Manual on the Human Rights to Safe Drinking Water and Sanitation for Practitioners

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9781780407449 9781780407432 Year: Pages: 120 DOI: 10.2166/9781780407449 Language: English
Publisher: IWA Publishing
Subject: Environmental Technology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-05 11:01:52
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"The Manual highlights the human rights principles and criteria in relation to drinking water and sanitation. It explains the international legal obligations in terms of operational policies and practice that will support the progressive realisation of universal access. The Manual introduces a human rights perspective that will add value to informed decision making in the daily routine of operators, managers and regulators. It also encourages its readership to engage actively in national dialogues where the human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation are translated into national and local policies, laws and regulations. Creating such an enabling environment is, in fact, only the first step in the process towards progressive realisation. Allocation of roles and responsibilities is the next step, in an updated institutional and operational set up that helps apply a human rights lens to the process of reviewing and revising the essential functions of operators, service providers and regulators."

Understanding the Successful Coordination of Team Behavior

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453498 Year: Pages: 136 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-349-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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In many areas of human life, people perform in teams. These teams’ performances depend, at least partly, on team members’ abilities to coordinate their contributions effectively. This includes the making of decisions and the regulation of behavior in reference to the framework provided by the social group- and task-context. Given the high relevance of a deepened and integrated understanding about the mechanisms underlying coordinated team behavior, the aim of this research topic is to provide a platform for different theoretical and methodological approaches to researching and understanding coordinated team behavior in different task contexts. The articles published in this edition offer a multifaceted insight into current work on the topic.

Chapter: Introduction - Field Experiments (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9781784716134 Year: DOI: 10.4337/9781784716134 Language: English
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
Subject: Business and Management --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-23 15:05:21
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This research review discusses the most critical and influential articles that utilise field experimentation to answer questions of economic importance. Field experiments have gained popularity in recent years, allowing researchers to infer causal effects of different market environments, policies and interventions. The articles analysed here provide insights into market functioning and individual and group decision-making across a wide range of domains, including marketplace transactions, labor decisions, charitable giving, financial planning, and education and health-related decision-making. This research review will be an important resource for students new to the methodology and applications of field experiments and academics alike.

Triage in Conservation

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454358 Year: Pages: 71 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-435-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Ecosystems and their constituent species the world over face a barrage of ongoing, and often escalating, threats. Conservation efforts aim to reduce the impact of these threats to ensure that global biodiversity continues to provide essential ecosystem services. As is most often the case, these efforts to protect threatened species and their environments are constrained by limited resources. Conservation biologists have therefore had to increase the efficiency of their conservation practices to deliver the greatest benefit at the lowest cost. This requires decision making using the best available knowledge to prioritise actions. A concept that has received considerable attention in this area is that of conservation triage.This eBook brings together perspectives from researchers and conservation practitioners who share their views and results in an effort to extend the discussion on this topic. A number of the papers in this eBook tackle the philosophical elements of conservation triage, while others take a more directed practical approach providing examples from conservation practice globally.

Freiheit, Kontrolle und Verantwortlichkeit in der Gesellschaft. Moderne Biotechnologie als Lehrstück

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ISBN: 9783937816166 Year: Pages: 459 DOI: 10.15460/HUP.10 Language: German
Publisher: Hamburg University Press
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:24

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The responsibility of science is the starting point for intensive discussions. But who is responsible ty for what? This work is based on many years of research into the developments in modern biotechnology. The thorough analysis shows that responsibility is usually borne by the others. Political, legal, administrative and intra-scientific communication and action structures prevent or dilute responsibility to the point of inaccessibility. Stephan Albrecht uses numerous examples from the fields of medicine, agriculture, pharmacy and environmental technology to demonstrate that biotechnological progress is not evolutionary but political, man-made. However, a fundamental error in this progress is that it is not properly understood and negotiated in public, as a res publica. From a democratic point of view, the author proposes an institutional approach to the perception of responsibility in and for the sciences, which is oriented towards the specific challenges of technological innovation and at the same time builds on the best practices of political and civic decision-making.

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