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Virus Discovery by Metagenomics: The (Im)possibilities

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453085 Year: Pages: 216 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-308-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Since the late 1800s, the discovery of new viruses was a gradual process. Viruses were described one by one using a suite of techniques such as (electron) microscopy and viral culture. Investigators were usually interested in a disease state within an organism, and expeditions in viral ecology were rare. The advent of metagenomics using high-throughput sequencing has revolutionized not only the rate of virus discovery, but also the nature of the discoveries. For example, the viral ecology and etiology of many human diseases are being characterized, non-pathogenic viral commensals are ubiquitous, and the description of environmental viromes is making progress. This Frontiers in Virology Research Topic showcases how metagenomic and bioinformatic approaches have been combined to discover, classify and characterize novel viruses.

Science with the Cherenkov Telescope Array

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ISBN: 9789813270091 Year: Pages: 364 DOI: 10.1142/10986 Language: ENG
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Co.
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 03:35:14
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This book summarizes the science to be carried out by the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array, a major ground-based gamma-ray observatory that will be constructed over the next six to eight years. The major scientific themes, as well as core program of key science projects, have been developed by the CTA Consortium, a collaboration of scientists from many institutions worldwide.CTA will be the major facility in high-energy and very high-energy photon astronomy over the next decade and beyond. CTA will have capabilities well beyond past and present observatories. Thus, CTA's science program is expected to be rich and broad and will complement other major multiwavelength and multimessenger facilities. This book is intended to be the primary resource for the science case for CTA and it thus will be of great interest to the broader physics and astronomy communities. The electronic version (e-book) is available in open access.

Cosmological Inflation, Dark Matter and Dark Energy

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ISBN: 9783039217649 / 9783039217656 Year: Pages: 236 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-765-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Various cosmological observations support not only cosmological inflation in the early universe, which is also known as exponential cosmic expansion, but also that the expansion of the late-time universe is accelerating. To explain this phenomenon, the existence of dark energy is proposed. In addition, according to the rotation curve of galaxies, the existence of dark matter, which does not shine, is also suggested. If primordial gravitational waves are detected in the future, the mechanism for realizing inflation can be revealed. Moreover, there exist two main candidates for dark matter. The first is a new particle, the existence of which is predicted in particle physics. The second is an astrophysical object which is not found by electromagnetic waves. Furthermore, there are two representative approaches to account for the accelerated expansion of the current universe. One is to assume the unknown dark energy in general relativity. The other is to extend the gravity theory to large scales. Investigation of the origins of inflation, dark matter, and dark energy is one of the most fundamental problems in modern physics and cosmology. The purpose of this book is to explore the physics and cosmology of inflation, dark matter, and dark energy.

The Fourteenth Marcel Grossmann Meeting:On Recent Developments in Theoretical and Experimental General Relativity, Astrophysics, and Relativistic Field Theories (In 4 Volumes)

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ISBN: 9789813226609 Year: Pages: 1084 DOI: 10.1142/10614 Language: English
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Co.
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-20 08:45:58
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The four volumes of the proceedings of MG14 give a broad view of all aspects of gravitational physics and astrophysics, from mathematical issues to recent observations and experiments. The scientific program of the meeting included 35 morning plenary talks over 6 days, 6 evening popular talks and 100 parallel sessions on 84 topics over 4 afternoons.Volume A contains plenary and review talks ranging from the mathematical foundations of classical and quantum gravitational theories including recent developments in string theory, to precision tests of general relativity including progress towards the detection of gravitational waves, and from supernova cosmology to relativistic astrophysics, including topics such as gamma ray bursts, black hole physics both in our galaxy and in active galactic nuclei in other galaxies, and neutron star, pulsar and white dwarf astrophysics.The remaining volumes include parallel sessions which touch on dark matter, neutrinos, X-ray sources, astrophysical black holes, neutron stars, white dwarfs, binary systems, radiative transfer, accretion disks, quasars, gamma ray bursts, supernovas, alternative gravitational theories, perturbations of collapsed objects, analog models, black hole thermodynamics, numerical relativity, gravitational lensing, large scale structure, observational cosmology, early universe models and cosmic microwave background anisotropies, inhomogeneous cosmology, inflation, global structure, singularities, chaos, Einstein-Maxwell systems, wormholes, exact solutions of Einstein's equations, gravitational waves, gravitational wave detectors and data analysis, precision gravitational measurements, quantum gravity and loop quantum gravity, quantum cosmology, strings and branes, self-gravitating systems, gamma ray astronomy, cosmic rays and the history of general relativity.

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