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Putting the "why" back into bone "archytecture"

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193110 Year: Pages: 82 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-311-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-03 17:04:57
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Abstract

A large literature exists on trabecular and cortical bone morphology. The engineering performance of bone, implied from its 3d architecture, is often the endpoint of bone biology experiments, being clinically relevant to bone fracture. How and why does bone travel along its complex spatio-temporal trajectory to acquire its architecture? The question "why" can have two meanings. The first, "teleological - why is an architecture advantageous?" – is the domain of substantial biomechanical research to date. The second, "etiological – how did an architecture come about?" – has received far less attention. This Frontiers Bone Research Topic invited contributions addressing this "etiological why" – what mechanisms can coordinate the activity of bone forming and resorbing cells to produce the observed complex and efficient bone architectures? One mechanism is proposed – chaotic nonlinear pattern formation (NPF) which underlies – in a unifying way – natural structures as disparate as trabecular bone, swarms of birds flying or shoaling fish, island formation, fluid turbulence and others. At the heart of NPF is the fact that simple rules operating between interacting elements multiplied and repeated many times, lead to complex and structured patterns. This paradigm of growth and form leads to a profound link between bone regulation and its architecture: in bone "the architecture is the regulation". The former is the emergent consequence of the latter. Whatever mechanism does determine bone's developing architecture has to operate at the level of individual sites of formation and resorption and coupling between the two. This has implications as to how we understand the effect on bone of agents such as gene products or drugs. It may be for instance that the "tuning" of coupling between formation and resorption might be as important as the achievement of enhanced bone volume. The ten articles that were contributed to this Topic were just what we hoped for – a snapshot of leading edge bone biology research which addresses the question of how bone gets its shape. We hope that you find these papers thought-provoking, and that they might stimulate new ideas in the research into bone architecture, growth and adaptation, and how to preserve healthy bone from gestation and childhood until old age.

Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering

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ISBN: 9783039289653 / 9783039289660 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-966-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Bone tissue engineering aims to develop artificial bone substitutes that partially or totally restore the natural regeneration capability of bone tissue lost under circumstances of injury, significant defects, or diseases such as osteoporosis. In this context, biomaterials are the keystone of the methodology. Biomaterials for bone tissue engineering have evolved from biocompatible materials that mimic the physical and chemical environment of bone tissue to a new generation of materials that actively interacts with the physiological environment, accelerating bone tissue growth. Mathematical modelling and simulation are important tools in the overall methodology. This book presents an overview of the current investigations and recent contributions in the field of bone tissue engineering. It includes several successful examples of multidisciplinary collaboration in this transversal area of research. The book is intended for students, researchers, and professionals of a number of disciplines, such as engineering, mathematics, physics, chemistry, biomedicine, biology, and veterinary. The book is composed of an editorial section and 16 original research papers authored by leading researchers of this discipline from different laboratories across the world

Keywords

Pelvis --- Bone tumor --- 3D-printed implant --- Fixation design --- von Mises stress --- dental implants --- osseointegration --- resonance frequency analysis --- biomaterials --- titanium --- powder metallurgy --- loose sintering --- finite element method --- mechanical behaviour --- bone tissue regeneration --- computed tomography --- Xenografts --- stem cell --- cartilage --- finite element --- finite-element simulation --- electric stimulation --- bone regeneration --- computational modelling --- electrically active implants --- bioelectromagnetism --- critical size defect --- maxillofacial --- minipig --- oxygen delivery --- optimization --- mass transfer --- transport --- bone tissue engineering --- computational fluid dynamics --- Lattice Boltzmann method --- scaffold design --- culturing protocol --- Lagrangian scalar tracking --- cortical bone --- damage --- finite elements --- numerical results --- adipogenesis --- bone marrow --- MSCs --- prediction marker --- bone tissue --- elastoplasticity --- finite element method --- fracture risk --- osteoporosis --- trabeculae --- trabecular bone score --- vertebra --- biomechanics --- finite element modelling --- pelvis --- bone adaptation --- musculoskeletal modelling --- bone tissue engineering --- biomaterials --- computational mechanobiology --- numerical methods in bioengineering --- Ti6Al4V scaffolds --- triply periodic minimal surfaces --- selective laser melting --- additive manufacturing --- biomaterial applications --- finite element analysis --- spark plasma sintering --- wollastonite --- human dental pulp stem cells --- substrate-mediated electrical stimulation --- direct current electric field --- osteo-differentiation --- bone morphogenesis proteins --- cortical bone --- digital image correlation --- multiscale analysis --- micromechanics --- computational mechanics --- cone beam computed tomography --- automatic segmentation --- sliding window --- 3D virtual surgical plan --- Otsu’s method --- n/a

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