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Born in 1953

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ISBN: 9789176350843 9789176350874 9789176350850 9789176350867 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.16993/bav Language: English
Publisher: Stockholm University Press
Subject: Philosophy --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:11
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"At the beginning of the 1960s, Swedish researchers started a sociological study of all children born in Stockholm in 1953, Project Metropolitan. This book describes the project’s at times dramatic history, where issues of personal integrity and the role of social sciences were heavily debated. These discussions were fueled by the rapid and far-reaching digitalization in society at large and also within social sciences. As such, Project Metropolitan came to symbolize the benefits and potential risks related to an expanding body of research based on large groups of individuals and multiple register data sources.
At the outset, the project’s founders sought to answer the following question: “Why do some get on better in life than others?” One of the main aims of the project was to study the long-term impact of conditions in childhood. The book therefore also includes an updated presentation of the main findings, as they have been conveyed in over 160 publications to date. These publications cover a wide array of topics and phenomena such as social mobility and education, substance abuse and crime, health and ill-health, peer influences and family relations, and adult lives of adopted children.
Today Project Metropolitan is known as the “Stockholm Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study (SBC Multigen)” and is still in full vigor. From its original group of 15,000 children, the study has become multi-generational by adding data about their parents, siblings, children, nieces and nephews. As they approach their late 60s, it will also be possible to follow these “children” into retirement and old-age.
In the concluding chapter the author discusses some of the challenges contemporary social research is facing. What are the current threats to academic freedom and what opportunities do the unique data registers in countries like Sweden provide?"

Keywords

Sociology --- Cohort study --- Longitudinal --- Sweden --- Post-war --- Welfare

Datenqualität in der medizinischen Forschung

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783954661213 9783954661213 9783954663743 Year: Language: German
Publisher: MWV Medizinisch Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 104961
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-15 11:21:04
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Der Nutzen von Kohortenstudien und Registern in der patientenorientierten Verbundforschung hängt wesentlich von der Qualität der dort erfassten Daten ab. Versorgungs- und Qualitätsforschung sind auf wissenschaftlich abgesicherte Methoden und Verfahren zur Sicherstellung einer hohen Datenqualität angewiesen. Die vorliegende Leitlinie enthält entsprechende Empfehlungen zum Management von Datenqualität in Registern, Kohortenstudien und Data Repositories. In der 2. Auflage wird ein deutlich erweitertes Indikatorenset bereitgestellt und die Anwendung der Indikatoren beispielhaft für verschiedene Typen von empirischen Forschungsvorhaben beschrieben. Die Leitlinie wird abgerundet durch eine aktuelle Literatursichtung und -analyse. Sie ist damit ein wichtiger Bestandteil des Maßnahmenspektrums zur Verbesserung und Sicherung der Datenqualität in der medizinischen Forschung.

Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Health

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038978909 / 9783038978916 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-891-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The impact of fat intake on hypercholesterolemia and related atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases has been studied for decades. However, the current evidence base suggests that fatty acids also influences cardiometabolic diseases through other mechanisms including effects on glucose metabolism, body fat distribution, blood pressure, inflammation, and heart rate. Furthermore, studies evaluating single fatty acids have challenged the simplistic view of shared health effects within fatty acid groups categorized by degree of saturation. In addition, investigations of endogenous fatty acid metabolism, including genetic studies of fatty acid metabolizing enzymes, and the identification of novel metabolically derived fatty acids have further increased the complexity of fatty acids’ health impacts. This Special Issue aims to include original research and up-to-date reviews on genetic and dietary modulation of fatty acids, and the role and function of dietary and metabolically derived fatty acids in cardiometabolic health.

Vitamin D and Human Health

ISBN: 9783038420569 9783038420576 Year: Pages: 476 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 08:50:54
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Vitamin D research has expanded greatly over the last 10 years, with a more than two-fold increase in annual publications listed in Pubmed with the key word ‘vitamin D’ from 1675 in 2005 to 3953 in 2014. Part of this increase is due to research showing that vitamin D deficiency is associated with a wide range of diseases and health outcomes. Until the 1980s, the primary focus of vitamin D research (in combination with calcium supplementation) was on bone diseases. Since then, observational studies have linked vitamin D deficiency with increased risk of many diseases: both acute and chronic. This book contains publications on several of these disease groups linked to vitamin D deficiency.

Tea in Health and Disease

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ISBN: 9783038979869 / 9783038979876 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-987-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Tea, made from the leaves of the Camellia senenisis plant, is the second most consumed beverage worldwide after water. Accumulating evidence from cellular, animal, epidemiological and clinical studies have linked tea consumption to various health benefits, such as chemoprevention of cancers, chronic inflammation, heart and liver diseases, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, etc. Although such health benefits have not been consistently observed in some intervention trials, positive results from clinical trials have provided direct evidence supporting the cancer-protective effect of green tea. In addition, numerous mechanisms of action have been suggested to contribute to tea’s disease-preventive effects. Furthermore, effects of the processing and storage of tea, as well as additives on tea’s properties have been investigated.

The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039218349 / 9783039218356 Year: Pages: 322 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-835-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:21:22
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The purpose of this Special Issue is to provide a thorough and up-to-date presentation of research investigating the impact of coffee and/or caffeine intake on various health outcomes. Areas of interest include, but are not limited to, the following topics: Human clinical trials of coffee or caffeine use in relation to disease or intermediate phenotypes. Epidemiological studies of habitual coffee or caffeine intake in relation to human health, among the general public, as well as, among special populations (i.e., children, pregnant women, diabetics, cancer patients, hypertensives, etc.). Mechanisms of action of nutrients and other bioactive components of coffee/caffeine. Studies integrating genetic or physiological markers of coffee/caffeine intake to investigations of coffee and health.

Keywords

accidental death --- caffeine --- caffeine intoxication --- intoxication --- Suicide --- HIV-HCV co-infection --- liver fibrosis --- coffee --- alcohol consumption --- coffee --- tea --- European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition --- 24-h dietary recall --- whole-blood --- mRNA --- transcriptomics --- gene expression --- coffee --- the Norwegian Women and Cancer Cohort (NOWAC) --- caffeine --- myocardial perfusion --- coronary artery disease --- adenosine --- regadenoson --- dipyridamole --- caffeine intake --- assisted reproduction techniques --- risk factors --- implantation --- clinical pregnancy --- live birth --- epidemiology --- bias --- causation --- coffee --- pregnancy --- coffee --- depression --- cohort study --- Mendelian Randomization --- coffee --- caffeine --- behavior --- causality --- genetic epidemiology --- epidemiological methods --- cardiovascular disease --- coffee consumption --- gene-diet interaction --- longevity --- NADH dehydrogenase --- polymorphism --- serum chloride levels --- CYP1A2 --- ADORA2A --- time trial performance --- caffeine metabolism --- pharmacological ergogenic aid --- polymorphism --- anxiety --- ergogenic --- adenosine receptor --- cytochrome P450 --- caffeine --- pharmacogenomics --- coffee --- caffeine --- chlorogenic acids --- phenolic --- cognition --- cognitive --- mood --- age --- sex --- caffeine --- wine --- chocolate --- aging --- cognition --- adult --- coffee --- hearing --- protection --- tinnitus --- Caffeine --- placebo --- sport --- exercise --- health --- expectancy --- cognitions --- caffeine --- coffee --- systematic review --- pregnancy --- safety --- individual responses --- ergogenic aid --- supplement --- did not respond --- responders --- n/a --- caffeine --- coffee --- tea --- soda --- energy drinks --- mate --- guidelines --- country --- consumption --- population --- public policy --- coffee --- caffeine --- lipids --- biomarkers --- trial --- lysophosphatidylcholine --- lipidomics --- n/a

Dietary Intake and Type 2 Diabetes

Author:
ISBN: 9783039217045 / 9783039217052 Year: Pages: 322 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-705-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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The prevalence of diabetes is on the increase in the UK and worldwide, partly due to changes in lifestyle which predispose individuals to overweight and obesity. It is estimated that about 90% of the currently diagnosed adults have type 2 diabetes, and based on the World Health Organisation (WHO) report, about 422 million adults were living with diabetes in 2014 compared with 108 million in 1980; this condition caused about 1.5 million deaths in 2012. In the United States of America, it is estimated that about 30.3 million adults are living with diabetes, with a further 1.5 million new diabetes cases diagnosed every year, representing an increasing prevalence of this condition. Diabetes represents a major public health challenge, despite advances in technology and the pharmaceutical industry. These problems may be in the form of acute or long-term complications. Therefore, in order to attenuate the problems of diabetes, management strategies usually include lifestyle changes such as increased physical activity and dietary interventions. Studies which evaluate the role of nutrition in the management of type 2 diabetes often involve human and animal models as these approaches enable us to have a broader and more in-depth understanding of the condition. In some cases, diabetes may co-exist with other conditions, such as stroke, and these may present unique challenges with regard to nutritional interventions. This Special Issue aims to evaluate the risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes and the role of the diet in the management of people with this condition. This evidence is drawn from both human and animal studies.

Keywords

aronia --- ginseng --- mushroom --- pancreatectomy --- type 2 diabetes --- gut microbiome --- insulin secretion --- energy restricted diet --- low energy diet --- carbohydrate restricted diet --- low carbohydrate diet --- diabetes --- Japanese --- tempeh --- lactic acid bacteria --- short chain fatty acids --- metabolic syndrome --- high fat diet --- feces --- type 2 diabetes mellitus --- peanut --- almond --- glycemic control --- body mass index --- lipids --- interleukin-6 --- muscle --- insulin resistance --- free fatty acids (FFA) --- diabetes --- rosemary extract --- AMPK --- prediabetes --- type 2 diabetes --- total body fat --- total body lean --- appendicular fat --- appendicular lean --- body composition --- cohort study --- micronutrients --- trace elements --- food --- glycated hemoglobin A --- hyperglycemia --- dietary pattern --- triglyceride --- high-density lipoprotein cholesterol --- type 2 diabetes --- type 2 diabetes mellitus --- nutrition --- DASH --- diet quality --- diabetes management --- dietary intake --- longitudinal analysis --- lifestyle management --- carbohydrate counting --- protein and fat counting --- insulin dosage --- glucose monitoring --- diabetes mellitus --- type 1 diabetes --- type 2 diabetes --- Hedychium coronarium --- type 2 diabetes --- aldosterone --- streptozotocin --- metabolic syndrome --- folk medicine --- calcium intake --- dairy products --- vitamin D --- type 2 diabetes --- diabetes --- diabetes reversal --- bariatric surgery --- very-low-calorie --- low-carbohydrate --- zinc intake --- zinc status --- trace elements --- type 2 diabetes mellitus --- systematic review --- meta-analysis --- epidemiology --- PUFA --- polyunsaturated fatty acids --- glycemic control --- nuts --- fish --- fish oil --- vegetable oil --- type 2 diabetes --- vitamin D deficiency --- 25-OH-D --- women --- cardiovascular risk factors --- T2DM --- obesity --- glycaemic index --- incretins --- subjective appetite --- isomaltulose --- sucromalt --- nutritional supplement --- type 2 diabetes --- gestational diabetes --- glycemic index --- randomised controlled trial --- lipid profile --- inflammatory parameters --- diabetes specific formula --- standard formula --- type 2 diabetes --- enteral nutrition --- enteral tube feeding --- lipids --- fasting blood glucose --- glycated haemoglobin --- type 2 diabetes --- dietary intake --- glycaemic control --- dietary management approaches --- micronutrients --- macronutrients --- nutrition --- chronic conditions --- lipid parameters

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