Search results: Found 14

Listing 1 - 10 of 14 << page
of 2
>>
Sort by
Klinische Prüfungen mit Arzneimitteln in der Schwangerschaft

Author:
ISBN: 9783863952334 Year: DOI: 10.17875/gup2015-885 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2016-06-21 11:02:28
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The clinical trial on medicinal products stands in the area of conflict between important scientific progress in favour of future patients on the one hand and the necessary protection of human subjects on the other hand. This conflict grows more acute when vulnerable persons – like pregnant women – are included in medical research. Whereas there are specific regulations for minors or incapacitated persons in the German Medicinal Products Act, legal regulations for the inclusion of pregnant women are missing. Based on this uncertain legal situation solutions are developed, which will show a way out of the dilemma. Insofar as the applicable law does not provide a handle for this problem, a need for reform is shown.

Plant Medicines for Clinical Trial

Author:
ISBN: 9783038970231 9783038970248 Year: Pages: X, 124 Language: english
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-09 10:40:08
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Plant medicines are the original medicines that humans have always used. Many people continue to use plant medicines today including teas, coffee, chocolate, ginger, and other medicines. Traditional medicine is based on plant medicines and is the primary form of medicine for many people throughout the world. The current volume discusses traditional medicines and presents various plant medicines that could be tested in clinical trials. Modern medicine continues to use many drugs that are derived from plants. The current work has much to teach modern medicine about the treatment of several diseases. Traditional healers have used plant medicines to treat psychiatric and other conditions that modern medicine struggles with. Safety issues are always a concern with plant medicines, especially allergies to plant medicines. Clinical trials must be conducted with plant medicines to help bring these traditional treatments into use by modern medicine.

Targeting PI3K/mTOR signaling in cancer

Author:
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192441 Year: Pages: 93 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-244-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/mTOR pathway integrates signals from growth factors with nutrient signals and other conditions and controls multiple cell responses, including proliferation, survival and metabolism. Deregulation of the PI3K pathway has been extensively investigated in connection to cancer. Somatic or inherited mutations frequently occur in tumor suppressor genes (PTEN, TSC1/2, LKB1) and oncogenes (PIK3CA, PIK3R1, AKT) in the PI3K/mTOR pathway. The fact that the PI3K/mTOR pathway is deregulated in a large number of human malignancies, and its importance for different cellular responses, makes it an attractive drug target. Pharmacological PI3K inhibitors have played a very important role in studying cellular responses involving these enzymes. Currently, a wide range of selective PI3K inhibitors have been tested in preclinical studies and some have entered clinical trials in oncology. Rapamycin and its analogs targeting mTOR are effective in many preclinical cancer models. Although rapalogs are approved for the treatment of some cancers, their efficacy in clinical trials remains the subject of debate. Due to the complexity of the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway, developing an effective anti-cancer therapy remains a challenge. The biggest challenge in curing cancer patients with various signaling pathway abnormalities is to target multiple components of different signal transduction pathways with mechanism-based combinatorial treatments.

Preclinical and clinical issues in Alzheimer's disease drug research and development

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194339 Year: Pages: 100 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-433-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cognitive dysfunction and memory loss, inability to perform the activities of daily living and mood disorders. According to the so-called “amyloid cascade hypothesis”, amyloid-ß- peptide (Aß), produced by beta- and gamma- secretase-mediated cleavages of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of AD. Aß was also shown to contribute to AD pathology by stimulating the hyperphosphorylation of tau which is responsible for the formation of neurofibrillary tangles. However, the “amyloid cascade hypothesis” was challenged by other theories which lend support to the idea that Aß is not causative but can be considered as an “innocent bystander” in AD. Although preclinical research generated impressive lines of evidence about the several intracellular mechanism(s) whose impairment leads to the onset and progression of AD, clinical research aimed at the development of new drugs capable of preventing or delaying the onset of neuronal damage in AD patients has produced limited results. The drugs currently available for the treatment of AD are acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI) and the NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist memantine. The AChEI increase acetylcholine levels in the synaptic cleft, which are reduced because of the progressive damage of cholinergic neurons in cognitive brain areas (e.g. amygdala, hippocampus, and frontal cortex), whereas memantine is used to prevent/reduce calcium-dependent excitotoxic neuronal cell death. Both classes of drugs have been shown to improve symptoms related to cognitive decline, but their effects are confined largely to patients with mild to moderate AD, in particular during the first year or so of treatment. An alternative to this symptomatic treatments involves the use of drugs that intervene in the pathogenesis of the disease. Recently, monoclonal antibodies against Aß were proposed as novel agents capable to remove Aß from the brain thus preventing neuronal damage. The research topic focuses on the preclinical and clinical evidence about the several factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of AD as well as the potential therapeutic role of new classes of drugs still under preclinical or clinical development.

Data-Based Radiation Oncology - Design of Clinical Trials

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454389 Year: Pages: 109 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-438-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

In radiation oncology as in many other specialties clinical trials are essential to investigate new therapy approaches. Usually, preparation for a prospective clinical trial is extremely time consuming until ethics approval is obtained. To test a new treatment usually many years pass before it can be implemented in the routine care. During that time, already new interventions emerge, new drugs appear on the market, technical & physical innovations are being implemented, novel biology driven concepts are translated into clinical approaches while we are still investigating the ones from years ago. Another problem is associated with molecular diagnostics and the growing amount of tumor specific biomarkers which allows for a better stratification of patient subgroups. On the other side, this may result in a much longer time for patient recruiting and consequently in larger multicenter trials. Moreover, all of the relevant data must be readily available for treatment decision making, treatment as well as follow-up, and ultimately for trial evaluation. This challenges even more for agreed standards in data acquisition, quality and management. How could we change the way currently clinical trials are performed in a way they are safe and ethically justifiable and speed up the initiation process, so we can provide new and better treatments faster for our patients?Further, while we rely on various quantitative information handling distributed, large heterogeneous amounts of data efficiently is very important. Thus data management becomes a strong focus. A good infrastructure helps to plan, tailor and conduct clinical trials in a way they are easy and quickly analyzable.In this research topic we want to discuss new ideas for intelligent trial designs and concepts for data management.

Clinical Trials in Ovarian Cancer

Author:
ISBN: 9780813586472 9780813586496 9780813586489 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Rutgers University Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 102219
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-11 11:21:02
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The first book to collect and synthesize cutting-edge research findings on the treatment of gynecological malignancies into one easy-to-use reference, Clinical Trials in Ovarian Cancer provides physicians with an invaluable resource. Gynecologic oncologist Christine S. Walsh systematically outlines each of the seminal Phase III trials that have shaped the treatment of ovarian cancers, detailing the rationale for the trial, the patient population studied, treatment delivery methods, efficacy, toxicity, and trial conclusions.

Inflammation and Cancer

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038426080 9783038426097 Year: Pages: VIII, 248 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-27 10:02:13
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Based on the most recent clinical and epidemiologic information, one out of seven newly diagnosed epithelial malignancies worldwide result from infection and chronic inflammation in conjunction with cancer. This book draws contributions from international expert researchers from diverse disciplines, who addressed various aspects of experimental and clinical cancer biology, by selectively focusing on inflammation-mediated oncogenesis to debate these and related issues. Topics covered include the epidemiological links between cancer and inflammation, the parallels between inflammation and cancer, the role of inflammation in cancer, inflammatory genes as risk factors for cancer initiation and progression, inflammation and cancer angiogenesis, and preventative/therapeutic strategies. This comprehensive and cutting-edge Special Issue “Inflammation and Cancer” promises to serve as a vital guide and resource for investigators and clinicians working toward the goal of fighting the estimated 2200 inflammation-related oncogenesis fatalities occurring every day.

Roles of NF-κB in Cancer and Their Therapeutic Approaches

Author:
ISBN: 9783038971177 9783038971184 Year: Pages: X, 330 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Oncology --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-15 10:52:09
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Although mortality rates have declined in recent years, the majority of cancers are still difficult to treat and the medical need for better cancer treatment is evident. The current anticancer armamentarium includes many active agents that are applied across tumor types. However, most of these broadly-active anticancer drugs have a small therapeutic index and barely discriminate between malignant and normal cells. In recent years the focus has shifted to the development of rationally designed, molecularly-targeted therapy for the treatment of a specific cancer, therefore offering the promise of greater specificity coupled with reduced systemic toxicity. NF-kB transcription factor family as emerged as such a promising target for cancer therapy. This Special Issue will explore the routes from NF-kB basic research, cancer research and oncogenomics into the development of NF-kB-based cancer therapeutics and biomarkers.We invite research and review papers in any area of the NF-kB field that are related, but not limited to, fundamental understanding of NF-kB signaling pathways, gene expression profiling, epigenetic regulation, diagnostic, prognostic and pharmacogenomic biomarkers, molecular targets driving the progression of human cancers, cancer drug development on these targets, clinical trial with new agents, and validation in animal models.We hope that this Special Issue reflects the exciting era that we are living in with respect to the field of NF-kB and its applications in cancer research.

Towards Mechanism-based Treatments for Fragile X Syndrome

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039215058 9783039215065 Year: Pages: 250 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-506-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

It has been more than 25 years since the identification of the FMR1 gene and the demonstration of the causative role of CGG-repeat expansion in the disease pathology of fragile X syndrome (FXS), but the underlying mechanisms involved in the expansion mutation and the resulting gene silencing still remain elusive. Our understanding of the pathways impacted by the loss of FMRP function has grown tremendously, and has opened new avenues for targeted treatments for FXS. However, the failure of recent clinical trials that were based on successful preclinical studies using the Fmr1 knockout mouse model has forced the scientific community to revisit clinical trial design and identify objective outcome measures. There has also been a renewed interest in restoring FMR1 gene expression as a possible treatment approach for FXS. This special issue of Brain Sciences highlights the progress that has been made towards understanding the disease mechanisms and how this has informed the development of treatment strategies that are being explored for FXS.

Keywords

fragile X syndrome --- clinical trials --- targeted treatments --- drug development --- fragile X syndrome --- clinical trials --- treatment development --- best practices --- fragile X syndrome --- newborn screening --- early identification --- fragile X syndrome --- X chromosome --- females --- FMR1 --- anxiety --- avoidance --- cognition --- behavior --- brain --- Fragile X --- FMRP --- Fxr2 --- Fmr1 --- fragile X syndrome --- executive function --- working memory --- set-shifting --- cognitive flexibility --- inhibitory control --- attention --- planning --- processing speed --- Fragile X syndrome 1 --- Fragile X-associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome 2 --- CRISPR 3 --- Trinucleotide Repeat 4 --- Gene editing --- fragile X syndrome --- FMR1 gene --- voice of the person --- voice of the patient --- characteristics that have the greatest impact --- developmental disorders --- fragile X syndrome --- language development --- automated vocal analysis --- adeno-associated virus --- autism spectrum disorders --- cerebral spinal fluid --- fragile X mental retardation protein --- neurodevelopmental disorders --- viral vector --- fragile X syndrome --- gene reactivation --- RNA:DNA hybrid --- FMRP --- histone methylation --- DNA methylation --- FMR1 --- PRC2 --- fragile X syndrome --- unstable repeat diseases --- epigenetic gene silencing --- DNA methylation --- repeat instability --- pluripotent stem cells --- CGG Repeat Expansion Disease --- DNA instability --- expansion --- contraction --- mismatch repair (MMR) --- base excision repair (BER) --- transcription coupled repair (TCR) --- double-strand break repair (DSBR) --- Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) --- mosaicism --- protein synthesis --- Fragile X Syndrome --- biomarker --- iPSC --- fibroblast --- lymphoblast --- fragile X syndrome --- molecular biomarkers --- FMR1 --- FMRP --- intellectual disability --- Fmr1 KO mouse --- ASD --- n/a

Seaweeds Secondary Metabolites: Successes in and/or Probable Therapeutic Applications

Author:
ISBN: 9783039283002 9783039283019 Year: Pages: 320 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-301-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Seaweeds are recognized as highly nutritious, and their use in gastronomy is increasing. Their health benefits and their potential to prevent several diseases have also been established. In this Special Issue several health effects are discussed, with more emphasis on their antitumor activity and potential use to treat Alzheimer’s disease. The key bioactive metabolites, from which phlorotannins can be highlighted, are presented, as well as some important in vivo studies. Altogether, the chapters provide in-depth information about the biological activities of seaweed metabolites, contributing to elucidate the health effects of seaweed.

Keywords

Padina pavonica --- osteosarcoma --- apoptosis --- algae --- chemo-preventive agent --- phytol --- fucosterol --- fatty acid --- laurinterol --- Laurencia --- antitumoral --- breast cancer explants --- organotypic culture --- ex vivo --- phlorotannin --- eckmaxol --- high-speed counter-current chromatography --- NMR spectroscopy --- mass spectrometry --- isolation and purification --- Ecklonia maxima --- fucoidan --- age-related macular degeneration --- VEGF --- oxidative stress --- Saccharina latissima --- Fucus vesiculosus --- Fucus distichus subsp. evanescens --- Fucus serratus --- Laminaria digitata --- Symphyocladia latiuscula --- bromophenols --- mushroom tyrosinase --- B16F10 --- melanin --- red seaweed --- bioactives --- extraction --- biorefinery --- seaweed --- gut microbiota --- prebiotics --- dietary fibre --- complex polysaccharides --- polyphenols --- polyunsaturated fatty acids --- carotenoids --- phytochemicals --- Padina pavonica --- marine algae --- osteoporosis --- bone metabolism --- bone health --- nutraceutical --- Bifurcaria bifurcata --- linear diterpenes --- extraction --- identification --- biological activities --- macroalgae --- high value applications --- phlorotannin --- amyloid-? aggregation --- insulin glycation --- dynamic simulation --- kidney --- ischemia-reperfusion injury --- Ecklonia cava --- phlorotannins --- Alzheimer’s disease --- seaweeds --- cholinesterases --- beta-secretase --- beta-amyloid aggregation --- neuroprotection --- K14HPV16 --- genotoxicity assay --- papillomavirus --- cancer --- seaweeds --- hyperpigmentation --- skin aging --- skincare --- photo-protection --- seaweeds --- secondary metabolites --- in vivo studies --- clinical trials --- health effects --- dieckol --- eckol --- fucoxanthin --- kahalalide F

Listing 1 - 10 of 14 << page
of 2
>>
Sort by