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Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus as a Case Study: Using a Precautionary Risk Management Approach for Emerging Blood-Borne Pathogens in Canada (Book chapter)

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9809533075827 Year: DOI: 10.5772/38572 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen Grant: FP7 Ideas: European Research Council - 228064
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:47:58
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In October 2009 it was reported that 68 of 101 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in the United States, when tested, were infected with a novel gamma retrovirus, xenotropic&#xD;&#xD;murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) (Lombardi et al., 2009). XMRV is a recently&#xD;&#xD;discovered human gammaretrovirus first described in prostate cancers that shares&#xD;&#xD;significant homology with murine leukemia virus (MLV) (Ursiman et al., 2006). It is known&#xD;&#xD;that XMRV can cause leukemias and sarcomas in several rodent, feline, and primate species&#xD;&#xD;but has not been shown to cause disease in humans. XMRV was detectable in the peripheral&#xD;&#xD;blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma of individuals diagnosed with CFS&#xD;&#xD;(Lombardi et al., 2009). After this report was published there was a great deal of uncertainty&#xD;&#xD;surrounding this emergent virus and its involvement in the etiology of CFS. The uncertainty&#xD;&#xD;was, in part, due to CFS being a complex, poorly understood multi-system disorder with&#xD;&#xD;different disease criteria used for its diagnosis. CFS, also known as Myalgic&#xD;&#xD;Encephalomyelitis (ME), is a debilitating disease of unknown origin that is estimated to&#xD;&#xD;affect 17 million people worldwide. The initial report connecting XMRV to prostate cancers&#xD;&#xD;and CFS garnered significant media and scientific interest since it provided a potential&#xD;&#xD;&#xD;&#xD;Susie ElSaadany2**, Tamer Oraby1&#xD;&#xD;*&#xD;&#xD;Daniel Krewski1, 4 and Peter R. Ganz5&#xD;&#xD;1McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment, Institute of Population Health, University of&#xD;&#xD;Ottawa, Ontario, Canada&#xD;&#xD;2Blood Safety Surveillance and Health Care Acquired Infections Division, Centre for Communicable Diseases and&#xD;&#xD;Infection Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada&#xD;&#xD;3Aspinall and Associates, Cleveland House, High Street, and Earth Sciences, Bristol University, Bristol, United&#xD;&#xD;Kingdom&#xD;&#xD;4Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa,&#xD;&#xD;Ontario, Canada&#xD;&#xD;5Health Canada, Director’s Office, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada&#xD;&#xD;** Corresponding Author&#xD;&#xD;, Marian Laderoute2&#xD;&#xD;, Jun Wu2&#xD;&#xD;, Willy Aspinall3&#xD;&#xD;,&#xD;&#xD;www.intechopen.com&#xD;&#xD;32 The Continuum of Health Risk Assessments&#xD;&#xD;explanation for the disease but also an avenue for possible therapeutic treatments since&#xD;&#xD;XMRV is known to be susceptible to some anti-retroviral drugs (Cohen, 2011).

Keywords

case study --- virus

The Greatest Possible Freedom

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ISBN: 9783845265490 Year: DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5771/9783845265490 Language: en
Publisher: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-26 14:01:47
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The book entitled 'The Greatest Possible Freedom' tells the story of natural persons in the internal market. The first part contains a thick chronological description of the case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union on free movement of persons and services, including the hitherto largely neglected coordination of social security. In this sizeable body of case-law including roughly 1400 decisions the book then traces the evolution and spin of certain interpretive formulas. Broad formulas like the greatest possible freedom or coordinative formulas like simple coordination are thus examined and their almost eerie power comes to light.

Diversité des agricultures familiales

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9782759222681 Year: DOI: 10.35690/978-2-7592-2268-1 Language: French
Publisher: éditions Quae
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-10 11:21:03
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This book aims to explain the nature and the force of links between the family and the farm. It is constructed around twenty case studies in miscellaneous countries in Asia, Africa, Latin America and Europe. The authors clarify "

Keywords

agriculture --- case studies

New Accountabilities, New Challenges

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9781925022070 Year: DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_569093 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2015-07-14 11:01:13
License: ANU Press

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This important and challenging volume of essays draws on insights from leading academics and public servants from Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Canada and elsewhere. It provides an excellent series of critiques of both the systemic accountabilities and the policy processes of government by drawing on meticulously researched, topical and real-world case studies of governance. Its contribution to the understanding of the applied processes of government in this way is exemplary. Topics covered include: restoring trust in government, parliamentary scrutiny of the APS, administrative law and FOI, budgetary reforms, implementation issues, competition policy, indigenous administration, collaboration with the NGO sector, educational reforms and the changes to the Auditor- General’s mandate.

On Ancient Grammars of Space. Linguistic Research on the Expression of Spatial Relations and Motion in Ancient Languages

Authors: ---
Book Series: Topoi – Berlin Studies of the Ancient World/Topoi – Berliner Studien der Alten Welt ISSN: 2191-5806 ISBN: 9783110311358 Year: Volume: 19 Pages: xxvi, 327 DOI: 10.1515/9783110311358 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: History --- Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-13 08:58:55
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This volume presents new research by the Topoi group "The Conception of Spaces in Language" on the expression of spatial relations in ancient languages. The six articles in this volume discuss static and dynamic aspects of the spatial grammars of Ancient to Medieval Greek, Akkadian, Hittite, and Hieroglyphic Ancient Egyptian, as well as field data on eight modern languages (Arabic, Hebrew, English, German, Russian, French, Italian, and Spanish). Among the grams discussed are spatial particles, motion verbs, case and, most prominently, spatial prepositions. All ancient language data are fully explained in linguistic word-by-word glosses and are therefore accessible to scholars who are not themselves experts on the respective languages. Taken together, these contributions extend the scope of research on spatial grammar back to the third millennium BCE.

Medical Innovation: Science, technology and practice

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Routledge International Studies in Health Economics ISBN: 9781138860346 Year: Pages: 186 pages | 26 B/W I Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Grant: Wellcome Trust - 097665
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Business and Management --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-09-10 11:01:16
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This book brings together a collection of empirical case studies featuring a wide spectrum of medical innovation. While there is no unique pathway to successful medical innovation, recurring and distinctive features can be observed across different areas of clinical practice. This book examines why medical practice develops so unevenly across and within areas of disease, and how this relates to the underlying conditions of innovation across areas of practice. The contributions contained in this volume adopt a dynamic perspective on medical innovation based on the notion that scientific understanding, technology and clinical practice co-evolve along the co-ordinated search for solutions to medical problems. The chapters follow an historical approach to emphasise that the advancement of medical know-how is a contested, nuanced process, and that it involves a variety of knowledge bases whose evolutionary paths are rooted in the contexts in which they emerge.&#xD;&#xD;This book will be of interest to researchers and practitioners concerned with medical innovation, management studies and the economics of innovation.&#xD;&#xD;Chapter 5 of this book is freely available as a downloadable Open Access PDF at www.tandfebooks.com/openaccess. It has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 3.0 license.

Technological Accretion in Diagnostics (Book chapter)

Book title: Medical Innovation: Science, technology and practice

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Routledge International Studies in Health Economics ISBN: 9781138860346 Year: Pages: 186 pages | 26 B/W I Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Grant: Wellcome Trust - 097665
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Business and Management --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 11:01:02
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This book brings together a collection of empirical case studies featuring a wide spectrum of medical innovation. While there is no unique pathway to successful medical innovation, recurring and distinctive features can be observed across different areas of clinical practice. This book examines why medical practice develops so unevenly across and within areas of disease, and how this relates to the underlying conditions of innovation across areas of practice. The contributions contained in this volume adopt a dynamic perspective on medical innovation based on the notion that scientific understanding, technology and clinical practice co-evolve along the co-ordinated search for solutions to medical problems. The chapters follow an historical approach to emphasise that the advancement of medical know-how is a contested, nuanced process, and that it involves a variety of knowledge bases whose evolutionary paths are rooted in the contexts in which they emerge.&#xD;&#xD;This book will be of interest to researchers and practitioners concerned with medical innovation, management studies and the economics of innovation.&#xD;&#xD;Chapter 5 of this book is freely available as a downloadable Open Access PDF at www.tandfebooks.com/openaccess. It has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 3.0 license.

Struggling for Self-Reliance: Four case studies of Australian Regional Force Projection in the late 1980s and the 1990s

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Book Series: Canberra Papers on Strategy and Defence ISBN: 9781921536090 Year: Pages: 231 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_459735 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2012-06-14 11:46:24
License: ANU Press

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Military force projection is the self-reliant capacity to strike from mainland ports, bases and airfields to protect Australia’s sovereignty as well as more distant national interests. Force projection is not just a flex of military muscle in times of emergency or the act of dispatching forces. It is a cycle of force preparation, command, deployment, protection, employment, sustainment, rotation, redeployment and reconstitution. If the Australian Defence Force consistently gets this cycle wrong, then there is something wrong with Australia’s defence.&#xD;&#xD;This monograph is a force projection audit of four Australian regional force projections in the late 1980s and the 1990s—valid measures of competence. It concludes that Australia is running out of luck and time.&#xD;&#xD;The Rudd Government has commissioned a new Defence White paper. This monograph is Exhibit A for change

Informative Psychometric Filters

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ISBN: 9781920942663 Year: Pages: 310 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_459293 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2014-01-27 08:26:29
License: ANU Press

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Psychometrics; Psychological tests; Human being; Case study; Classification; Reliability

A typology of marked-S languages

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Book Series: Studies in Diversity Linguistics ISBN: 9783944675190 Year: Pages: 281 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_533871 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2014-09-24 15:01:43
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Case-systems all over the world exhibit striking similarities. In most lan- guages intransitive subjects (S) receives less overt marking than one of the&#xD;two transitive arguments (agent-like A or patient-like P); the other one of&#xD;these two arguments is usually encoded by the same form as S. In some&#xD;languages the amount of overt marking is identical between S, A, and P.&#xD;But hardly ever does the S argument receive more overt marking than A&#xD;or P. Yet there are some languages that do not follow this general pattern.&#xD;This book is about those languages that behave differently, the marked-S&#xD;languages.&#xD;Marked-S languages are well-known to be found in East Africa, where&#xD;they occur in two different language families, Afro-Asiatic and Nilo-Sa-&#xD;haran. They can also be found in North-Western America and the Pacific&#xD;region. This book is the first investigation of marked S-languages that&#xD;treats the phenomenon on a global scale.&#xD;The study examines the functional distribution of the two main case-&#xD;forms, the form used for S (S-case) and the case-form of the transitive ar-&#xD;gument which receives less marking (the zero-case). It offers a very fine-&#xD;grained perspective considering a wide range of constructions. The con-&#xD;texts in which the case-marking patterns are investigated include nom-&#xD;inal, existential and locational predication, subjects in special discourse&#xD;function (e. g. focused constituents), subjects of passives and dependent&#xD;clauses, as well as the forms used for addressing someone (vocative form)&#xD;and for using a noun in isolation (citation form).&#xD;Apart from the functional distribution of case forms, the formal means&#xD;of marking are also considered. The main focus is on the synchronic de-&#xD;scription and comparison of marked-S languages, but historical explana-&#xD;tions for the unusual case-marking pattern are also discussed.

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