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Obsessed by a Dream

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Book Series: Springer Biographies ISBN: 9783030263386 Year: Pages: 511 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-26338-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Mathematics --- Science (General) --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-04 11:21:07
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This Open Access biography chronicles the life and achievements of the Norwegian engineer and physicist Rolf Widerøe. Readers who meet him in the pages of this book will wonder why he isn't better known. The first of Widerøe's many pioneering contributions in the field of accelerator physics was the betatron, the second, the linear accelerator, both summarized in a 27 page PhD. The betatron revolutionized the fields of cancer treatment through radiation therapy and also nondestructive testing; hospitals worldwide installed Widerøe's machine and today’s modern radiation treatment equipment is based on his inventions. The most recent renaissance of the linac provides unprecedented x-ray intensities at Free Electron Laser (FEL) facilities in operation and construction worldwide. . Widerøe’s story also includes a fair share of drama, particularly during World War II when both Germans and the Allies vied for his collaboration. Widerøe held leading positions in multinational industry groups and was one of the consultants for building the world's largest nuclear laboratory, CERN, in Switzerland. He gained over 200 patents, received several honorary doctorates and a number of international awards. The author, a professional writer and maker of TV documentaries, has gained access to hitherto restricted archives in several countries, which provided a wealth of new material and insights, in particular in relation to the war years. She tells here a gripping and illuminating story.

Data and Text Processing for Health and Life Sciences

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Book Series: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology ISBN: 9783030138455 Year: Pages: 98 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-13845-5 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Computer Science --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-05 11:21:03
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This open access book is a step-by-step introduction on how shell scripting can help solve many of the data processing tasks that Health and Life specialists face everyday with minimal software dependencies. The examples presented in the book show how simple command line tools can be used and combined to retrieve data and text from web resources, to filter and mine literature, and to explore the semantics encoded in biomedical ontologies. To store data this book relies on open standard text file formats, such as TSV, CSV, XML, and OWL, that can be open by any text editor or spreadsheet application. The first two chapters, Introduction and Resources, provide a brief introduction to the shell scripting and describe popular data resources in Health and Life Sciences. The third chapter, Data Retrieval, starts by introducing a common data processing task that involves multiple data resources. Then, this chapter explains how to automate each step of that task by introducing the required commands line tools one by one. The fourth chapter, Text Processing, shows how to filter and analyze text by using simple string matching techniques and regular expressions. The last chapter, Semantic Processing, shows how XPath queries and shell scripting is able to process complex data, such as the graphs used to specify ontologies. Besides being almost immutable for more than four decades and being available in most of our personal computers, shell scripting is relatively easy to learn by Health and Life specialists as a sequence of independent commands. Comprehending them is like conducting a new laboratory protocol by testing and understanding its procedural steps and variables, and combining their intermediate results. Thus, this book is particularly relevant to Health and Life specialists or students that want to easily learn how to process data and text, and which in return may facilitate and inspire them to acquire deeper bioinformatics skills in the future.

Advancing the Science of Cancer in Latinos

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ISBN: 9783030292867 Year: Pages: 329 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-29286-7 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-05 11:21:05

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This open access book gives an overview of the sessions, panel discussions, and outcomes of the Advancing the Science of Cancer in Latinos conference, held in February 2018 in San Antonio, Texas, USA, and hosted by the Mays Cancer Center and the Institute for Health Promotion Research at UT Health San Antonio. Latinos – the largest, youngest, and fastest-growing minority group in the United States – are expected to face a 142% rise in cancer cases in coming years. Although there has been substantial advancement in cancer prevention, screening, diagnosis, and treatment over the past few decades, addressing Latino cancer health disparities has not nearly kept pace with progress. The diverse and dynamic group of speakers and panelists brought together at the Advancing the Science of Cancer in Latinos conference provided in-depth insights as well as progress and actionable goals for Latino-focused basic science research, clinical best practices, community interventions, and what can be done by way of prevention, screening, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer in Latinos. These insights have been translated into the chapters included in this compendium; the chapters summarize the presentations and include current knowledge in the specific topic areas, identified gaps, and top priority areas for future cancer research in Latinos. Topics included among the chapters: Colorectal cancer disparities in Latinos: Genes vs. Environment Breast cancer risk and mortality in women of Latin American origin Differential cancer risk in Latinos: The role of diet Overcoming barriers for Latinos on cancer clinical trials Es tiempo: Engaging Latinas in cervical cancer research Emerging policies in U.S. health care Advancing the Science of Cancer in Latinos proves to be an indispensable resource offering key insights into actionable targets for basic science research, suggestions for clinical best practices and community interventions, and novel strategies and advocacy opportunities to reduce health disparities in Latino communities. It will find an engaged audience among researchers, academics, physicians and other healthcare professionals, patient advocates, students, and others with an interest in the broad field of Latino cancer.

Animals and Medicine: The Contribution of Animal Experiments to the Control of Disease

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ISBN: 9781783741182 9781783741199 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0055 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-06-10 13:31:46
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Animals and Medicine: The Contribution of Animal Experiments to the Control of Disease offers a detailed, scholarly historical review of the critical role animal experiments have played in advancing medical knowledge. Laboratory animals have been essential to this progress, and the knowledge gained has saved countless lives—both human and animal. Unfortunately, those opposed to using animals in research have often employed doctored evidence to suggest that the practice has impeded medical progress. This volume presents the articles Jack Botting wrote for the Research Defence Society News from 1991 to 1996, papers which provided scientists with the information needed to rebut such claims. Collected, they can now reach a wider readership interested in understanding the part of animal experiments in the history of medicine—from the discovery of key vaccines to the advancement of research on a range of diseases, among them hypertension, kidney failure and cancer.This book is essential reading for anyone curious about the role of animal experimentation in the history of science from the nineteenth century to the present.

Low-Dose Radiation Effects on Animals and Ecosystems

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ISBN: 9789811382185 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.1007/978-981-13-8218-5 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Zoology --- Mathematics --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-04 11:21:23
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This open access book summarizes the latest scientific findings regarding the biological effects of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident in 2011. Various cases of changes in animals and organisms have been reported since the FNPP accident. However, it is often unknown whether they are actually due to radiation, since the dose or dose-rate are not necessarily associated with the changes observed. This book brings together the works of radiation biologists and ecologists to provide reliable radioecology data and gives insight into future radioprotection. The book examines the environmental pollution and radiation exposure, and contains valuable data from abandoned livestock in the ex-evacuation zone and from wild animals including invertebrates and vertebrates, aqueous and terrestrial animals, and plants that are subjected to long-term exposure in the area still affected by radiation. It also analyzes dose evaluation, and offers new perspectives gained from the accident, as well as an overview for future studies to promote radioprotection of humans and the ecosystem. Since the biological impact of radiation is influenced by various factors, it is difficult to scientifically define the effects of low-dose/low-dose-rate radiation. However, the detailed research data presented can be combined with the latest scientific and technological advances, such as artificial intelligence, to provide new insights in the future. This book is a unique and valuable resource for researchers, professionals and anyone interested in the impact of exposure to radiation or contamination with radioactive materials.

Cancer Biomarkers and Targets in Digestive Organs

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ISBN: 9783039214631 / 9783039214648 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-464-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Identification and development of cancer biomarkers and targets have greatly accelerated progress towards precision medicine in oncology. Studies of tumor biology have not only provided insights into the mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis, but also led to discovery of molecules that have been developed into cancer biomarkers and targets. Multi-platforms for molecular characterization of tumors using next-generation genomic sequencing, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and blood-based biopsies have greatly expanded the portfolio of potential biomarkers and targets. These cancer biomarkers have been developed for diagnosis, early detection, prognosis, and prediction of treatment response. The molecular targets have been exploited for anti-cancer therapy and delivery of therapeutic agents. This Special Issue of Biomedicines focuses on recent advances in the discovery, characterization, translation, and clinical application of cancer biomarkers and targets in malignant diseases of the digestive system. The goal is to stimulate basic and translational research and clinical collaboration in this exciting field with the hope of developing strategies for prevention and early detection/diagnosis of cancer in digestive organs, and improving therapeutic and psychosocial outcomes in patients with these malignant diseases.

Keywords

colorectal cancer --- intestinal disorder --- intestinal tumors --- zebrafish --- stereotactic body radiation therapy --- immunotherapy --- biomarkers --- Asian Cancer Research Group (ACRG) --- gastric carcinoma --- molecular profiling --- precision therapy --- pembrolizumab --- predictive biomarkers --- ramucirumab --- The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) --- therapeutic targets --- trastuzumab --- biliary tract carcinoma --- chemotherapy --- clinical trial --- colorectal carcinoma --- gastric carcinoma --- gastrointestinal oncology --- hepatocellular carcinoma --- immunotherapy --- pancreatic carcinoma --- targeted therapy --- Liver transplantation --- liver graft injury --- intragraft gene expression profiles --- cell adhesion molecules --- CD274 --- HFE --- hepatocellular carcinoma --- immunohistochemistry --- molecular profiling --- next-generation sequencing --- precision medicine --- predictive biomarkers --- gastrointestinal oncology --- pancreatic carcinoma --- hepatocellular carcinoma --- biliary tract carcinoma --- gastric carcinoma --- colorectal carcinoma --- stereotactic body radiation therapy --- liver transplant --- targeted therapy --- psychosocial support --- G protein–coupled receptors --- cholecystokinin --- gastrin --- gastrin-releasing peptide --- bombesin --- neurokinin --- neurotensin --- somatostatin --- circulating tumor cells --- colorectal carcinoma --- CAM invasion assay --- phenotypic mosaics --- tumor progenitor --- biomarker --- gastrointestinal malignancies --- immunotherapy --- n/a

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