Search results: Found 7

Listing 1 - 7 of 7
Sort by
Ca2+ Signaling and Heart Rhythm

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198740 Year: Pages: 133 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-874-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Ca2+ is a key second messenger in the intricate workings of the heart. In cardiac myocytes, Ca2+ signaling controls or modulates electrophysiological function, excitation-contraction coupling, contractile function, energy balance, cell death, and gene transcription. Thus, diverse Ca2+-dependent regulatory processes occur simultaneously within a cell. Yet, distinct signals can be resolved by local Ca2+ sensitive protein complexes and differential Ca2+ signal integration. In addition to its importance to normal cardiac function, such regulation is also crucial in disease conditions. Ca2+ is likely involved in ectopic cardiac rhythms in both atrial and ventricular tissues through generating triggered activity often appearing as delayed afterdepolarisations, particularly following cellular Ca overloading. Recent studies also implicate Ca2+ in Na+ channel expression and properties with consequences for conduction velocity and therefore arrhythmic substrate. At the cellular level, such regulation involves control of the activity of membrane ion channels and Ca2+ handling proteins. These in turn involve multiple extra- and intracellular signaling pathways. This e-book assembles review and original articles from experts in this field. It summarises major recent progress bearing on roles of Ca2+ in cardiac electrophysiological function encompassing both normal and abnormal cardiac function. These extend from physiological roles of Ca2+ signaling in pacemaker function, in particular generation of sino-atrial pacemaker potentials, to pathological roles of abnormal Ca2+ signaling in both atrial and ventricular arrhythmogenesis. It also seeks to bridge the gap between advances in basic science and development of new therapies.

Keywords

Ca2+ --- Heart --- Pak1 --- SA node --- voltage gated Ca2+ channels --- TRPC --- STIM1 --- Orai1 --- PP2A

Calcium Signaling in Human Health and Diseases

Author:
ISBN: 9783038975373 9783038975380 Year: Pages: 462 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-538-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physiology --- Biochemistry --- Internal medicine --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-21 10:12:01
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Intracellular Ca2+ signaling is witnessing an amazing resurgence of interest. In addition to traditional Ca2+ aficionados, an astonishing (and growing) number of colleagues from all around the world have started to devote a large part of their research to gain insights into the role of Ca2+ signaling in health and disease. This is why calcium ions interact with virtually every signal transduction pathway not only in mammalian cells, but also across the phylogenetic tree, thereby, driving or modulating most, if not all, cellular functions, ranging from fertilization to apoptosis, passing through learning and memory, cardiac contractility, and immune response. This book gathers a collection of original research articles and reviews by a number of renowned experts who aim to present the state of the art of many pathophysiological aspects of intracellular Ca2+ signaling, such as embryonic development, immune response, extracellular Ca2+ signaling, neoplastic transformation, muscle hypertrophy, pulmonary inflammation, and P2X receptor gating.

Structural and diagenetic controls on reservoir quality in tight siliciclastic and carbonate rocks

Author:
ISBN: 9783731508366 Year: Pages: XV, 186 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000085503 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Ethnology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-28 18:37:01
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Upper Carboniferous (Westphalian C/D) fluvial sandstones and Zechstein Ca2 (Stassfurt, second cycle) carbonates represent two important hydrocarbon reservoir units in NW Europe. A better understanding of reservoir quality variations and their spatial variability is crucial to develop successful exploration strategies. In fluvial Westphalian C/D sandstones and Ca2 carbonate reservoirs, the reservoir properties are controlled by diagenetic alterations and intense fracturing.

The Role of Mitochondria, Oxidative Stress and Altered Calcium Homeostasis in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: From Current Developments in the Laboratory to Clinical Treatments

Author:
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451463 Year: Pages: 336 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-146-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive, devastating and fatal disease characterized by selective loss of upper and lower motor neurons of the cerebral cortex, brainstem, spinal cord and muscle atrophy. In spite of many years of research, the pathogenesis of ALS is still not well understood. ALS is a multifaceted genetic disease, in which genetic susceptibility to motor neuron death interacts with environmental factors and there is still no cure for this deleterious disease. At present, there is only one FDA approved drug, Riluzole which according to past studies only modestly slows the progression of the disease, and improves survival by up to three months. The suffering of the ALS patients, and their families is enormous and the economic burden is colossal. There is therefore a pressing need for new therapies. Different molecular pathways and pathological mechanisms have been implicated in ALS. According to past studies, altered calcium homeostasis, abnormal mitochondrial function, protein misfolding, axonal transport defects, excessive production of extracellular superoxide radicals, glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, inflammatory events, and activation of oxidative stress pathways within the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum can act as major contributor that eventually leads to loss of connection between muscle and nerve ultimately resulting to ALS. However, the detailed molecular and cellular pathophysiological mechanisms and origin and temporal progression of the disease still remained elusive. Ongoing research and future advances will likely advance our improve understanding about various involved pathological mechanism ultimately leading to discoveries of new therapeutic cures. Importantly, clinical biomarkers of disease onset and progression are thus also urgently needed to support the development of the new therapeutic agents and novel preventive and curative strategies. Effective translation from pre-clinical to clinical studies will further require extensive knowledge regarding drug activity, bioavailability and efficacy in both the pre-clinical and clinical setting, and proof of biological activity in the target tissue. During the last decades, the development of new therapeutic molecules, advance neuroimaging tools, patient derived induced stem cells and new precision medicine approaches to study ALS has significantly improved our understanding of disease. In particular, new genetic tools, neuroimaging methods, cellular probes, biomarker study and molecular techniques that achieve high spatiotemporal resolution have revealed new details about the disease onset and its progression. In our effort to provide the interested reader, clinician and researchers a comprehensive summaries and new findings in this field of ALS research, hereby we have created this electronic book which comprises of twenty seven chapters having various reviews, perspective and original research articles. All these chapters and articles in this book not only summarize the cutting-edge techniques, approaches, cell and animal models to study ALS but also provide unprecedented coverage of the current developments and new hypothesis emerging in ALS research. Some examples are novel genetic and cell culture based models, mitochondria-mediated therapy, oxidative stress and ROS mechanism, development of stem cells and mechanism-based therapies as well as novel biomarkers for designing and testing effective therapeutic strategies that can benefit ALS patients who are at the earlier stages in the disease. I am extremely grateful to all the contributors to this book and want to thank them for their phenomenal efforts. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive, devastating and fatal disease characterized by selective loss of upper and lower motor neurons of the cerebral cortex, brainstem, spinal cord and muscle atrophy. In spite of many years of research, the pathogenesis of ALS is still not well understood. ALS is a multifaceted genetic disease, in which genetic susceptibility to motor neuron death interacts with environmental factors and there is still no cure for this deleterious disease. At present, there is only one FDA approved drug, Riluzole which according to past studies only modestly slows the progression of the disease, and improves survival by up to three months. The suffering of the ALS patients, and their families is enormous and the economic burden is colossal. There is therefore a pressing need for new therapies. Different molecular pathways and pathological mechanisms have been implicated in ALS. According to past studies, altered calcium homeostasis, abnormal mitochondrial function, protein misfolding, axonal transport defects, excessive production of extracellular superoxide radicals, glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, inflammatory events, and activation of oxidative stress pathways within the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum can act as major contributor that eventually leads to loss of connection between muscle and nerve ultimately resulting to ALS. However, the detailed molecular and cellular pathophysiological mechanisms and origin and temporal progression of the disease still remained elusive. Ongoing research and future advances will likely advance our improve understanding about various involved pathological mechanism ultimately leading to discoveries of new therapeutic cures. Importantly, clinical biomarkers of disease onset and progression are thus also urgently needed to support the development of the new therapeutic agents and novel preventive and curative strategies. Effective translation from pre-clinical to clinical studies will further require extensive knowledge regarding drug activity, bioavailability and efficacy in both the pre-clinical and clinical setting, and proof of biological activity in the target tissue. During the last decades, the development of new therapeutic molecules, advance neuroimaging tools, patient derived induced stem cells and new precision medicine approaches to study ALS has significantly improved our understanding of disease. In particular, new genetic tools, neuroimaging methods, cellular probes, biomarker study and molecular techniques that achieve high spatiotemporal resolution have revealed new details about the disease onset and its progression. In our effort to provide the interested reader, clinician and researchers a comprehensive summaries and new findings in this field of ALS research, hereby we have created this electronic book which comprises of twenty seven chapters having various reviews, perspective and original research articles. All these chapters and articles in this book not only summarize the cutting-edge techniques, approaches, cell and animal models to study ALS but also provide unprecedented coverage of the current developments and new hypothesis emerging in ALS research. Some examples are novel genetic and cell culture based models, mitochondria-mediated therapy, oxidative stress and ROS mechanism, development of stem cells and mechanism-based therapies as well as novel biomarkers for designing and testing effective therapeutic strategies that can benefit ALS patients who are at the earlier stages in the disease. I am extremely grateful to all the contributors to this book and want to thank them for their phenomenal efforts.

Physiological Responses to Abiotic and Biotic Stress in Forest Trees

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039215140 9783039215157 Year: Pages: 294 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-515-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

As sessile organisms, plants have to cope with a multitude of natural and anthropogenic forms of stress in their environment. Due to their longevity, this is of particular significance for trees. As a consequence, trees develop an orchestra of resilience and resistance mechanisms to biotic and abiotic stresses in order to support their growth and development in a constantly changing atmospheric and pedospheric environment. The objective of this Special Issue of Forests is to summarize state-of-art knowledge and report the current progress on the processes that determine the resilience and resistance of trees from different zonobiomes as well as all forms of biotic and abiotic stress from the molecular to the whole tree level.

Keywords

drought --- mid-term --- non-structural carbohydrate --- soluble sugar --- starch --- Pinus massoniana --- salinity --- Carpinus betulus --- morphological indices --- gas exchange --- osmotic adjustment substances --- antioxidant enzyme activity --- ion relationships --- Populus simonii Carr. (poplar) --- intrinsic water-use efficiency --- tree rings --- basal area increment --- long-term drought --- hydrophilic polymers --- Stockosorb --- Luquasorb --- Konjac glucomannan --- photosynthesis --- ion relation --- Fagus sylvatica L. --- Abies alba Mill. --- N nutrition --- mixed stands --- pure stands --- soil N --- water relations --- 24-epiBL application --- salt stress --- ion contents --- chloroplast ultrastructure --- photosynthesis --- Robinia pseudoacacia L. --- elevation gradient --- forest type --- growth --- leaf properties --- Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc. --- Heterobasidion parviporum --- Heterobasidion annosum --- Norway spruce --- disturbance --- water availability --- pathogen --- infection --- Carpinus turczaninowii --- salinity treatments --- ecophysiology --- photosynthetic responses --- organic osmolytes --- ion homeostasis --- antioxidant enzymes --- glutaredoxin --- subcellular localization --- expression --- tapping panel dryness --- defense response --- rubber tree --- Ca2+ signal --- drought stress --- living cell --- Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) --- plasma membrane Ca2+ channels --- signal network --- Aleppo pine --- Greece --- photosynthesis --- water potential --- ?13C --- sap flow --- canopy conductance --- climate --- molecular cloning --- functional analysis --- TCP --- DELLA --- GA-signaling pathway --- Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. --- wood formation --- abiotic stress --- nutrition --- gene regulation --- tree --- bamboo forest --- cold stress --- physiological response --- silicon fertilization --- plant tolerance --- reactive oxygen species --- antioxidant activity --- proline --- Populus euphratica --- salt stress --- salicylic acid --- malondialdehyde --- differentially expressed genes --- n/a

Roles and Functions of ROS and RNS in Cellular Physiology and Pathology

Author:
ISBN: 9783039287826 / 9783039287833 Year: Pages: 230 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-783-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pathology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Our common knowledge on oxidative stress has evolved substantially over the years and has been mostly focused on the fundamental chemical reactions and the most relevant chemical species involved in the human pathophysiology of oxidative stress-associated diseases. Thus, reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) were identified as the key players initiating, mediating, and regulating the cellular and biochemical complexity of oxidative stress either as physiological (acting pro-hormetic) or as pathogenic (causing destructive vicious circle) process. The papers published in this particular Special Issue of the Cells demonstrate the impressive pathophysiological relevance of ROS and RNS in a range of contexts, including the relevance of second messengers of free radicals like 4-hydroxynonenal, allowing us to assume that even more detailed mechanisms of their positive and negative effects lie in wait, and should assist in better monitoring of the major modern diseases and the development of advanced integrative biomedicine treatments.

Keywords

human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells --- TRPM2 channel --- ROS --- neuronal cell death --- histamine --- calcium --- endothelial cells --- NADPH-oxidase --- VAS2870 --- von Willebrand factor --- aorta --- relaxation --- reactive oxygen species (ROS) --- oxidative stress --- lipid peroxidation --- acrolein --- 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) --- oxidative burst --- granulocytes --- cancer cells --- growth control --- cancer regression --- hydroxyapatite-based biomaterials --- osteoblast growth --- redox balance --- vitamins --- lipid peroxidation --- 4-hydroxynonenal --- oxidative stress --- oxidative stress --- nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 --- heme-oxygenase-1 --- macrophages --- plaque vulnerability --- optical coherence tomography --- reactive oxygen species --- free radicals --- DNA damage --- cyclopurines --- DNA and RNA polymerases --- nucleotide excision repair --- LC-MS/MS --- xeroderma pigmentosum --- cancer --- intermittent hypoxia --- mitochondria --- Ca2+, ROS --- antioxidant --- free radicals --- antimicrobial --- toll-like receptors --- cannabidiol --- UV radiation --- keratinocytes --- antioxidants --- inflammation --- intracellular signaling --- Nrf2 --- NF?B --- glucose deprivation --- glutamine deprivation --- viability --- proliferation --- ROS --- NRF2-NQO1 axis --- IMR-90 --- NQO1 transcript variants --- rs1800566 --- TP53 mutation --- oxidative stress --- MFN2 --- mitochondria --- fusion/fission --- oxidative stress --- blood–brain barrier --- bEnd5 --- bEnd.3 --- glutathione --- viability --- free radicals --- redox balance --- cell signaling --- growth --- toxicity --- antioxidants --- oxidative homeostasis --- oxidative metabolism of the cells --- pathophysiology of oxidative stress

Natural Products and Drug Discovery

Author:
ISBN: 9783039287468 / 9783039287475 Year: Pages: 392 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-747-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Natural products hold a prominent position in the current discovery and development of drugs and have diverse indications for both human and animal health. Plants, in particular, play a leading role as a source of specialized metabolites with medical effects. Other organisms, such as marine and terrestrial animals and microorganisms, produce very important drug candidate molecules. Specialized metabolites from these varied natural sources can be used directly as bioactive compounds or drug precursors. In addition, due to their broad chemical diversity, they can act as drug prototypes and/or be used as pharmacological tools for different targets. Some examples of natural metabolites that have been developed into useful medical drug are cardiotonic digoxin from Digitalis sp., antimalarial artemisinin from Artemisia annua, anti-cancer taxol from Taxus sp., or podophyllotoxin from Podophyllum peltatum, which served as a synthetic model for the anti-cancer etoposide. The study of natural products is still attracting great scientific attention and their current importance, as a valuable lead for drug discovery, is undebatable. I cordially invite authors to contribute original articles, as well as survey articles, that give the readers of Molecules **MOLECULES NEEDS TO BE ITALICIZED** updated and new perspectives on natural products in drug discovery, including but not limited to natural sources, identification and separation of bioactive phytochemicals, standardization, new biological targets, pre-clinical and clinical trials, pharmacological effects/side effects, and bioassays.

Keywords

cytotoxicity-guided --- phenolic derivatives --- Dryopteris fragrans --- chemical derivatization --- immuno-regulation activity --- Imperata cylindrica --- HPLC --- ESI-MS/MS --- growth inhibitory activity --- cancer --- cardamonin --- antinociceptive --- TRPV1 --- glutamate --- opioid --- siphonous green algae --- sulfated coumarins --- Dasycladus vermicularis --- isolation and quantification --- Orobanche s.l. --- Orobanchaceae --- Lamiales --- natural products --- secondary metabolites --- phenylpropanoid glycosides --- phenylethanoid glycosides --- bioactivities of natural products --- chemosystematics --- FSE --- T2DM --- GLUT4 --- Ca2+ --- L6 cell --- marine peptides --- proliferation --- migration --- angiogenesis --- zebrafish --- antioxidant activity --- flavonoids --- isoflavones --- phenolics --- proanthocyanidins --- Trifolium --- Leea indica --- HPLC-ESI-microTOF-Q-MS/MS --- phenolics --- dihydrochalcones --- Humulus lupulus --- prenylated phenolic compounds --- antimicrobial agents --- methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus --- Leishmania mexicana mexicana --- Trypanosoma brucei brucei --- Astragalus boeticus L. --- spectroscopic analysis --- cytotoxic activity --- human colon cancer cell lines --- acetylated astragalosides --- Fabaceae --- aging --- cancer --- cardiovascular disease --- dementia --- diabetes --- inflammation --- oxidative stress --- Harpagophytum procumbens --- devil’s claw --- harpagoside --- spagyric tincture --- antioxidant activity --- Cleistocalyx operculatus --- 2?,4?-dihydroxy-6?-methoxy-3?,5?-dimethylchalcone (DMC) --- pPancreatic cancer --- PANC-1 --- ACE inhibitory peptide --- antihypertensive --- bioactive peptides --- hypertension --- marine resources --- terpenes --- terpenoids --- antimicrobial resistance --- synergy --- Phyllanthus orbicularis --- C-glycoside --- flavonoid --- natural products --- traditional medicine --- Cuba --- Phyllanthus chamacristoides --- chromatography --- mass spectrometry --- NMR --- circular dichroism --- stereochemistry --- Fideloside --- cytokines --- anti-inflammatory activity --- metabolomics --- multivariate data analysis --- molecular network --- Bacopa monnieri --- LC-MS --- diabetic neuropathy --- neuropathic pain --- glucosinolates --- Eruca sativa --- glucoerucin --- H2S --- Kv7 potassium channels --- artemisinin --- Physcomitrella patens --- sesquiterpenoids --- malaria --- biotechnology --- ketamine --- psychosis --- cerebellum --- celastrol --- oxidative stress --- NADPH oxidases --- n/a

Listing 1 - 7 of 7
Sort by
Narrow your search