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Plasticity in the sensory systems of invertebrates

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192816 Year: Pages: 78 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-281-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Abstract

The visual, olfactory, auditory and gustatory systems of invertebrates are often used as models to study the transduction, transmission and processing of information in nervous systems, and in recent years have also provided powerful models of neural plasticity. This Research Topic presents current views on plasticity and its mechanisms in invertebrate sensory systems at the cellular, molecular and network levels, approached from both physiological and morphological perspectives. Plasticity in sensory systems can be activity- dependent, or occur in response to changes in the environment, or to endogenous stimuli. Plastic changes have been reported in receptor neurons, but are also known in other cell types, including glial cells and sensory interneurons. Also reported are dynamic changes among neuronal circuits involved in transmitting sensory stimuli and in reorganizing of synaptic contacts within a particular sensory system. Plastic changes within sensory systems in invertebrates can also be reported during development, after injury and after short or long- term stimulation. All these changes occur against an historical backdrop which viewed invertebrate nervous systems as largely hard-wired, and lacking in susceptibility especially to activity-dependent changes. This Research Topic examines how far we have moved from this simple view of simple brains, to the realization that invertebrate sensory systems exhibit all the diversity of plastic changes seen in vertebrate brains, but among neurons in which such changes can be evaluated at single-cell level.

Neural Circuits: Japan

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194377 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-437-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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This Frontiers Research Topic on ‘Neural Circuits: Japan’ explores the diversity of neural circuit research occurring across Japan by innovative researchers using cutting-edge approaches. This issue has brought together papers revealing the development, structure, and physiology of neuronal circuits involved in sensory perception, sleep and wakefulness, behavioral selection, and motor command generation in a range of species from the nematode to the primate. Like the USA and Europe, Japan is now making a strong effort to elucidate neural circuit function in diverse organisms by taking advantages of optogenetics and innovative approaches for gene manipulation, traditional physiological and anatomical approaches, and neural pathway-selective inactivation techniques that have recently been developed in Japan.

The Role of Glia in Plasticity and Behavior

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196906 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-690-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Glial cells are no longer considered passive bystanders in neuronal brain circuits. Not only are they required for housekeeping and brain metabolism, they are active participants in regulating the physiological function and plasticity of brain circuits and the online control of behavior both in invertebrate and vertebrate model systems. In invertebrates, glial cells are essential for normal function of sensory organs (C. elegans) and necessary for the circadian regulation of locomotor activity (D. melanogaster). In the mamallian brain, astrocytes are implicated in the regulation of cortical brain rhythms and sleep homeostasis. Disruption of AMPA receptor function in a subset of glial cell types in mice shows behavioral deficits. Furthermore, genetic disruption of glial cell function can directly control behavioral output. Regulation of ionic gradients by glia can underlie bistability of neurons and can modulate the fidelity of synaptic transmission. Grafting of human glial progenitor cells in mouse forebrain results in human glial chimeric mice with enhanced plasticity and improved behavioral performance, suggesting that astrocytes have evolved to cope with information processing in more complex brains. Taken together, current evidence is strongly suggestive that glial cells are essential contributors to information processing in the brain. This Research Topic compiles recent research that shows how the molecular mechanisms underlying glial cell function can be dissected, reviews their impact on plasticity and behavior across species and presents novel approaches to further probe their function.

Keywords

glia --- Astrocytes --- plasticity --- Behavior --- Gq --- DREADD --- C. elegans --- Hippocampus --- Cerebellum --- Cortex

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