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Bone Marrow T Cells at the Center Stage in Immunological Memory

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450930 Year: Pages: 84 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-093-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Increasing evidence supports the notion that bone marrow (BM) represents a relevant player in T cell responses, particularly in its role as a specialized organ for long-term memory. Memory T cells are enriched in the BM over long times after priming, and can be recruited to the periphery upon antigenic challenge. The articles in this research topic include discussions of whether these T cells are passing-through or truly resident, as well as a debate on the extent of proliferation of BM memory T cells. Original research articles in this collection include an analysis of the number of memory T cells found in different bones as well as effects of B cell depletion on T cell memory in the BM. T cells in the BM can influence a number of processes, from bone remodeling, control of cancer, to effects on hemopoiesis or Graft versus Host Disease (GVHD). This research topic contains several contributions to these topics including discussions on how to translate BM T cell knowledge into medicine.

Crosstalk between the osteogenic and neurogenic stem cell niches: how far are they from each other?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197774 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-777-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Somatic stem cells reside in definite compartments, known as “niches”, within developed organs and tissues, being able to renew themselves, differentiate and ensure tissue maintenance and repair. In contrast with the original dogmatic distinction between renewing and non-renewing tissues, somatic stem cells have been found in almost every human organ, including brain and heart. The adult bone marrow, in particular, houses a complex multifunctional niche comprising hemopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), that intensely interact. HSCs represent the common precursors of all mature blood cells. MSCs are instead able to differentiate along multiple mesodermal lineages and are believed to represent the key somatic stem cell within the skeletogenic niche, being conceptually able to produce any tissue included within a mature skeletal segment (bone, cartilage, blood vessels, adipose tissue, and supporting connective stroma). Despite this high plasticity, the claim that MSCs could be capable of transdifferentiation along non-mesodermal lineages, including neurons, has been strongly argued. Adult osteogenic and neurogenic niches display wide differences: embryo origin, microenvironment, progenitors’ lifespan, lineages of supporting cells. Although similar pathways may be involved, it is hard to believe that the osteogenic and neurogenic lineages can share functional features. The outbreaking research achievements in the field of regenerative medicine, along with the pressing need for effective innovative tools for the treatment of neurodegeneration and neurologic disorders, have been forcing experimental clinical applications, which, despite their scientific weakness, have recently stimulated the public opinion. Based on this contemporary background, this Research Topic wish to provide an in-depth revision of the state of the art on relevant scientific milestones addressing the differences and possible interconnections and overlaps, between the osteogenic and the neurogenic niches. Dissertations on both basic research and clinical aspects, along with ethical and regulatory issues on the use of somatic stem cells for in vivo transplantation, have been covered.

In Search of In Vivo MSC

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452354 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-235-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Advances in Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing

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ISBN: 9783039217007 / 9783039217014 Year: Pages: 128 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-701-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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PacBio’s single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology offers important advantages over the short-read DNA sequencing technologies that currently dominate the market. This includes exceptionally long read lengths (20 kb or more), unparalleled consensus accuracy, and the ability to sequence native, non-amplified DNA molecules. From fungi to insects to humans, long reads are now used to create highly accurate reference genomes by de novo assembly of genomic DNA and to obtain a comprehensive view of transcriptomes through the sequencing of full-length cDNAs. Besides reducing biases, sequencing native DNA also permits the direct measurement of DNA base modifications. Therefore, SMRT sequencing has become an attractive technology in many fields, such as agriculture, basic science, and medical research. The boundaries of SMRT sequencing are continuously being pushed by developments in bioinformatics and sample preparation. This book contains a collection of articles showcasing the latest developments and the breadth of applications enabled by SMRT sequencing technology.

Newborn Screening for Sickle Cell Disease and other Haemoglobinopathies

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ISBN: 9783039216147 / 9783039216154 Year: Pages: 162 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-615-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Newborn Screening for Sickle Cell Disease and other Haemoglobinopathies is a Special Issue of the International Journal of Neonatal Screening. Sickle cell disease is one of the most common inherited blood disorders, with a huge impact on health care systems due to high morbidity and high mortality associated with the undiagnosed disease. Newborn screening helps to make the diagnosis early and to prevent fatal complications and diagnostic odysseys. This book gives an overview of diagnostic standards in newborn screening for sickle cell disease and examples of existing newborn screening programs.

Keywords

newborn screening --- sickle cell disease --- India --- tribal --- non-tribal --- Guthrie spots --- cord blood --- automated HPLC --- (recommended) screening panel --- policy making --- harmonisation --- patient advocacy --- Sickle Cell Disease --- ‘Getting to Outcomes’ --- newborn screening) --- sub-Saharan Africa --- Nigeria --- Kaduna State --- implementation science --- public health engagement --- glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase --- G6PD deficiency --- point-of-care --- diagnostics --- malaria --- Plasmodium vivax --- screening --- sickle cell disease --- newborn --- mass spectrometry --- hemoglobinopathies --- newborn screening --- methods --- review --- sickle cell disease --- neonatal screening program --- registry --- birth prevalence --- newborn screening --- sickle cell disease --- hemoglobinopathy --- laboratory methods --- neonatal screening --- hemoglobin pattern --- HPLC --- IEF --- capillary electrophoresis --- sickle cell disease --- high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) --- ?-globin gene --- sickle cell disease --- newborn screening --- Caribbean --- newborn screening --- sickle cell disease --- MALDI-TOF --- mass spectrometry --- thalassemia --- prevention --- neonatal screening --- sickle cell disease --- hemoglobinopathies --- sickle cell disorder --- patient organisations --- patient representatives --- service users --- sickle cell and thalassaemia screening programme --- health policy --- screening --- sickle cell disease --- newborn --- thalassemia --- burden of disease --- newborn screening --- hemoglobinopathies --- sickle cell disease (SCD) --- pathophysiology --- hydroxyurea/hydroxycarbamide --- haemolysis --- vaso-occlusive crisis --- acute chest syndrome --- end-organ damage --- bone marrow transplant --- anaemia --- foetal haemoglobin --- gene therapy for haemoglobinopathies --- n/a

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