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DHA for Optimal Health

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ISBN: 9783038429715 9783038429722 Year: Pages: X, 276 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-26 16:08:39
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This Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled "DHA for Optimal Health", consists of evidence-based original research or reviews of the scientific literature. Manuscripts focus on the evidence that underpins dietary requirements throughout the lifespan (from in-utero to the elderly) for optimal brain function and/or prevention (or treatment) of disease.

Chocolate and Health: Friend or Foe?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454112 Year: Pages: 77 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-411-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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In the ancient past, cocoa has been appreciated as a high-calorie food to boost energy in soldiers and for its undefined medicinal and mystical properties. During other times, chocolate has been considered as the forbidden “food of God”: a treasure of pleasure for the mind and the soul. The overall perception of the consumer for chocolate was of a “charming” and appealing food with lots of negative aspects related to high sugar content leading to consider chocolate as “junk food” for its “obesigen” calories. Recently, in association with the renewed interest of nutrition science in alternative source of health-promoting foods and ingredients, a large body of research has been conducted to unravel the pro and cons of cocoa in relation to human health. Epidemiological evidences indicate that cocoa consumption helps preventing cardiovascular disease for its high content in bioactive flavonoids. Clinical trials show that chocolate consumption might improve vascular function, decreasing platelet aggregation and display an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. The putative protective action of cocoa seems to be multi-factorial and involving different aspects of vascular, antioxidant and endothelial function. However, the mechanism(s) that account for the benefits of cocoa it is still unclear.The aim of this Research Topic is therefore to provide the reader with an objective picture of the state of art on the association between cocoa and health, mainly through the evidences of human trials; overwhelmingly considered the golden standard for nutritional science. The Research Topic will cover the analysis of the manufacturing processes of the chocolate and the antioxidant effects in humans as well as the majority of the putative health effects of chocolate and cocoa, such as anti-inflammatory properties, effect on immunity, platelet aggregation, blood pressure, endothelial function and cognitive behavior. Unraveling the functional properties of cocoa will help to understand if the 'food of God' is a primordial gift for the health of mankind.

Less and Non-invasive Hemodynamic Monitoring Techniques

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456857 Year: Pages: 66 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-685-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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In the perioperative setting and in intensive care medicine, early and effective hemodynamic management including fluid therapy and administration of vasoactive drugs to maintain vital organ perfusion and oxygen delivery is mandatory. Understanding the different approaches in the management of critically ill patients during the resuscitation and further management is essential to initiate adequate context- and time-specific interventions. Optimization of hemodynamic variables to achieve a balance between organ oxygen delivery and consumption is a cornerstone. In general, cardiac output (i.e., the blood flow) is considered a major determinant of oxygen supply and thus its monitoring is regarded helpful. However, indicators of oxygen requirements are equally necessary to assess adequacy of oxygen supply. Currently, more and more less or even totally non-invasive monitoring systems have been developed and clinically introduced, but they require validation in particular clinical settings. Cardiac output monitors and surrogates of organ oxygenation only enable to adequately guide management, as patient’s outcome is determined by acquisition and interpretation of accurate measurements, and finally, suitable management decisions.This Research Topic focuses on the currently available techniques, especially the less and non-invasive ones, in the field of hemodynamic monitoring in the perioperative setting and in critically ill patients while summarizing their advantages and limitations.

Bestimmung zeitabhängiger Blutdruckfelder aus Strömungsdaten der Magnetresonanztomographie

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ISBN: 9783731503354 Year: Pages: VII, 208 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000045315 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:02
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In cardiovascular diagnostics, blood pressure computation from flow data acquired by magnetic resonance imaging is considered promising. Accordingly, this work describes a method for the computation of complete spatiotemporal blood pressure fields in the human aorta. Key issues are the robust pressure computation from noisy input data, the application of regularized blood flow models, the combination of spatial and temporal blood pressure information, and the experimental evaluation.

Nutrients Intake and Hypertension

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ISBN: 9783039286621 / 9783039286638 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-663-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Hypertension is a major health problem worldwide, increasing cardiovascular (CV) risk and mortality. Together with pharmacological treatments, non-pharmacological approaches, such as nutrient intake modifications, play an important role in optimizing treatment. A link has been demonstrated between hypertension and body weight as well as dietary habits. The aim of this Special Issue is to improve the understanding of the relationships between some nutrients and hypertension, and of the effects of different dietary approaches on hypertension regulation from different points of view.

Water Intake, Body Water Regulation and Health

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ISBN: 9783039286560 / 9783039286577 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-657-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The purpose of this Special Issue, “Water Intake, Body Water Regulation, and Health”, is to present novel reviews and experimental data regarding hydration physiology and its implication in overall health. Water has previously been dubbed the forgotten nutrient due to humans’ and animals’ ability to subsist seemingly unchanged across a wide range of daily water intakes. However, with the introduction of stressors such as exercise, diseased states, and/or chronic high or low water intake, the homeostatic signals related to body water regulation can influence organ and whole-body health. This Special Issue will discuss water intake, the scientific rationale surrounding the U.S. and European water intake guidelines, homeostatic mechanisms, diseases related to dysfunction of water regulation, and differences in the volume and the vehicle in which the water is contained (i.e., plain water versus mixed beverages) on water intake during and following exercise. The aim is to continue discussion surrounding water, the previously forgotten nutrient, and highlight the importance of water in daily life.

Cocoa, Chocolate and Human Health

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ISBN: 9783039285884 / 9783039285891 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-589-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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This book entitled “Cocoa, Chocolate, and Human Health” presents the most recent findings about cocoa and health in 14 peer-reviewed chapters including nine original contributions and five reviews from cocoa experts around the world. Bioavailability and metabolism of the main cocoa polyphenols, i.e., the flavanols like epicatechin, are presented including metabolites like valerolactones that are formed by the gut microbiome. Many studies, including intervention studies or epidemiological observations, do not focus on single compounds, but on cocoa as a whole. This proves the effectiveness of cocoa as a functional food. A positive influence of cocoa on hearing problems, exercise performance, and metabolic syndrome is discussed with mixed results; the results about exercise performance are contradictive. Evidence shows that cocoa flavanols may modulate some risk factors related to metabolic syndrome such as hypertension and disorders in glucose and lipid metabolism. However, several cardiometabolic parameters in type 2 diabetics were not affected by a flavanol-rich cocoa powder as simultaneous treatment with pharmaceuticals might have negated the effect of cocoa. The putative health-promoting components of cocoa are altered during processing like fermentation, drying, and roasting of cocoa beans. Chocolate, the most popular cocoa product, shows remarkable losses in polyphenols and vitamin E during 18 months of storage.

Keywords

type 2 diabetes --- flavanol-rich cocoa --- blood pressure --- glucose metabolism --- lipid status --- type 2 diabetes --- flavanol-rich cocoa --- postprandial --- meal --- glucose metabolism --- lipids --- blood pressure --- cocoa processing --- cocoa proteins --- classification --- extraction and characterization methods --- fermentation-related enzymes --- bioactive peptides --- heath potentials --- protein–phenol interactions --- chocolate --- hearing loss --- tinnitus --- cohort study --- cocoa --- bioactive compounds --- flavanols bioavailability --- anti-inflammatory properties --- metabolic syndrome --- oxidative stress --- cocoa by-product --- functional food --- polyphenols --- ?-glucosidase inhibition --- antidiabetic capacity --- antioxidant capacity --- methylxanthines --- fermentation --- functional volatile compounds --- starter culture --- yeast --- roasting --- chocolate --- cocoa beans --- theobromine --- cacao --- working memory --- behavior --- CaMKII --- CREB --- BDNF --- cocoa --- oligopeptides --- simulated gastrointestinal digestion --- angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity --- cocoa --- chocolate --- metabolites --- biomarkers --- metabolomics --- urine --- plasma --- procyanidins --- methylxanthines --- polyphenols --- flavanols --- soluble cocoa products --- bioavailability --- human --- plasma nutrikinetics --- liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QToF-MS) --- colonic bacteria --- athlete --- cocoa --- chocolate --- exercise performance --- oxidative stress --- performance --- physical exercise --- polyphenol --- skeletal muscle --- inflammation --- Italian chocolate --- quality --- cocoa-based ingredients --- monitoring --- nutrition --- cocoa --- flavan-3-ol stereoisomers --- (?)-epicatechin --- (+)-catechin --- (?)-catechin --- plasma appearance --- chiral separation --- pharmacokinetics --- one-compartment model --- n/a

Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Health

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ISBN: 9783038978909 9783038978916 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-891-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The impact of fat intake on hypercholesterolemia and related atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases has been studied for decades. However, the current evidence base suggests that fatty acids also influences cardiometabolic diseases through other mechanisms including effects on glucose metabolism, body fat distribution, blood pressure, inflammation, and heart rate. Furthermore, studies evaluating single fatty acids have challenged the simplistic view of shared health effects within fatty acid groups categorized by degree of saturation. In addition, investigations of endogenous fatty acid metabolism, including genetic studies of fatty acid metabolizing enzymes, and the identification of novel metabolically derived fatty acids have further increased the complexity of fatty acids’ health impacts. This Special Issue aims to include original research and up-to-date reviews on genetic and dietary modulation of fatty acids, and the role and function of dietary and metabolically derived fatty acids in cardiometabolic health.

Pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and Paraganglioma (PGL)

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ISBN: 9783039216543 9783039216550 Year: Pages: 380 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-655-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This book outlines some new advances in genetics, clinical evaluation, localization, therapy (newly including immunotherapy) of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma including their metastatic counterparts. Well-known and experienced clinicians and scientists contributed to this book to include some novel approaches to these tumors. This book will serve to various health care professionals from different subspecialties, but mainly oncologists, endocrinologists, endocrine surgeons, pediatricians, and radiologists. This book shows that the field of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma is evolving and a significant progress has been made in last 5 years requiring that health care professionals and scientists will learns new information and implement it in their clinical practice or scientific work, respectively. This book should not be missed by anybody who is focusing on neuroendocrine tumors, their newest evaluation and treatment.

Keywords

pheochromocytoma --- paraganglioma --- adrenocortical carcinoma --- adrenal tumor --- pan-cancer analysis --- neural crest --- neuroendocrine --- paraganglioma --- head and neck --- radiotherapy --- 18F-FDOPA --- PET --- GTV --- SDHB --- SDHD --- mortality --- paraganglioma --- pheochromocytoma --- radiofrequency ablation --- cryoablation --- percutaneous ethanol injection --- neuroendocrine tumor --- minimally invasive procedure --- percutaneous ablation --- PASS --- GAPP --- histology --- meta-analysis --- paraganglioma --- pheochromocytoma --- carotid body --- angiogenesis --- mitochondria --- neural crest --- neurogenesis --- paraganglioma --- stem-like tumor cells --- vasculogenesis --- xenograft --- pheochromocytoma --- catecholamine --- global longitudinal strain --- speckle-tracking echocardiography --- subclinical systolic dysfunction --- pheochromocytoma --- paraganglioma --- neuroendocrine tumor --- targeted therapy --- therapy resistance --- FGF21 --- pheochromocytoma --- paraganglioma --- diabetes mellitus --- obesity --- energy metabolism --- calorimetry --- chromogranin A --- metanephrines --- pheochromocytoma --- paraganglioma --- hypoxia --- pseudohypoxia --- spheroids --- HIF --- EPAS1 --- catecholamine --- pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma --- phosphorylation tyrosine hydroxylase --- dog --- pheochromocytoma --- paraganglioma --- SDHB --- SDHD --- mutation --- chromosomal alteration --- comparative genomics --- pheochromocytoma --- paraganglioma --- metastatic --- immunotherapy --- innate immunity --- adaptive immunity --- toll-like receptor --- pathogen-associated molecular patterns --- neutrophil --- T cell --- pheochromocytoma --- paraganglioma --- hypertension --- blood pressure variability --- average real variability --- weighted standard deviation --- paraganglioma --- somatostatinoma --- polycythemia --- EPAS1 --- transgenic mice --- erythropoietin --- pheochromocytoma --- paraganglioma --- TCA cycle --- germline mutation --- metastatic OR malignant pheochromocytoma --- paraganglioma --- ectopic secretion --- lL-6 --- normetanephrines --- VHL --- NF1 --- EPAS1 --- hypoxia-inducible factor --- inflammation --- radiosensitization --- succinate dehydrogenase --- mouse pheochromocytoma cells --- immunohistochemistry --- fluorescence imaging --- pheochromocytoma --- paraganglioma --- next-generation sequencing --- sporadic --- hereditary --- CNV detection --- pheochromocytoma --- paraganglioma --- PET-CT --- 11C-hydroxy-ephedrine --- adrenal incidentaloma --- pheochromocytoma --- paraganglioma --- 177Lu-DOTATATE --- peptide receptor radiotherapy --- PRRT --- neuroendocrine tumor --- NET --- PCC --- PGL --- postoperative --- pheochromocytoma --- hypertension --- hypotension --- arrhythmia --- PPGL --- catecholamines --- adrenomedullary function --- n/a

Dietary Behavior and Physical Activity in Children and Adolescents

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ISBN: 9783039216000 9783039216017 Year: Pages: 358 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-601-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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In recent years, diet- and lifestyle-related disorders have become a major health threat in Europe and worldwide. The contributions in this monograph include 2 review articles and 19 original contributions from several countries that provide new information on the existing research elucidating important aspects of children’s and adolescents’ nutrition and lifestyle behavior. The data included in this Special Issue are from large epidemiological studies, including several multicenter and multinational studies, as well as datasets from surveillance initiatives. The topics of interest of this Special Issue include the co-occurrence of multiple health behaviors in children, the role of parenting and early feeding practices, dairy consumption in childhood, validity of dietary intake data, dietary supplement use in children, as well as socioeconomic disparities and eating culture. The diverse articles in this Special Issue highlight the complexity and extent to which nutrition and physical activity behaviors may influence different health aspects of children and adolescents. As seen by the various findings and recommendations, not only is more work in this area required but the translation of this work to practice and policy is imperative if we are to address the challenges impacting the nutrition, physical activity, and health of young populations.

Keywords

diet --- inflammation --- children’s-dietary inflammatory index --- body composition --- primary school --- dietary pattern --- principal component analysis --- reduced rank regression --- prevention --- validation study --- dietary assessment methods --- food diary --- cross-classification --- children --- whole diet --- preschool --- DAGIS Study --- diet quality --- PANDiet index --- early childhood --- nutritional adequacy --- nutrient intake quality --- growing up milk --- eating behaviour --- psychological eating style --- negative emotions --- Emotion-Induced Eating Scale --- health behaviour --- BMI --- home food environment --- Healthy Eating Index --- dietary quality --- validation --- psychometric --- consumption behavior --- knowledge --- Melanesian --- Pacific --- physical activity --- sugar-sweetened beverage --- noncommunicable diseases --- weight status --- self-weight perception --- cluster analysis --- energy balance-related behaviors --- physical activity --- sedentary behavior --- screen time --- dietary intake --- overweight --- obesity --- children --- family meals --- food parenting practices --- preschoolers --- nutrition risk --- direct observation --- adolescents --- children --- determinants --- dietary supplements --- food choice --- intervention --- nutrition --- preschool --- child --- parent --- dairy --- calcium --- migration status --- dietary habits --- food frequency questionnaire --- socioeconomic disparities --- adolescents --- pediatric --- overweight --- epidemiological transition --- collaboration --- childhood obesity --- CEBQ --- eating behavior and Ile251Leu --- breakfast --- obesity --- cardiovascular --- health --- BMI --- waist circumference --- cholesterol --- blood pressure --- MyHeARTs --- breastfeeding --- formula milk --- taste preference --- healthy diet adherence --- children --- IDEFICS study --- I.Family --- screen time --- physical activity --- preschool children --- food and beverage consumption --- Physical activity --- exercise --- food intake --- diet --- children --- adolescents --- KiGGS --- children --- mothers --- vegetable intake --- consumption behaviors --- choice --- preferences --- vitamin --- mineral --- dietary supplements --- adolescents --- EsKiMo --- dietary screener --- obesity prevention --- sweet preference --- children --- diet quality --- dietary behavior --- physical activity --- young populations --- surveillance --- epidemiology --- public health

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