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Biological Information:New Perspectives

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9789814508728 Year: Pages: 584 DOI: 10.1142/8818 Language: English
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Co.
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 03:49:23
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In the spring of 2011, a diverse group of scientists gathered at Cornell University to discuss their research into the nature and origin of biological information. This symposium brought together experts in information theory, computer science, numerical simulation, thermodynamics, evolutionary theory, whole organism biology, developmental biology, molecular biology, genetics, physics, biophysics, mathematics, and linguistics. This volume presents new research by those invited to speak at the conference.The contributors to this volume use their wide-ranging expertise in the area of biological information to bring fresh insights into the many explanatory difficulties associated with biological information. These authors raise major challenges to the conventional scientific wisdom, which attempts to explain all biological information exclusively in terms of the standard mutation/selection paradigm.Several clear themes emerged from these research papers: 1) Information is indispensable to our understanding of what life is; 2) Biological information is more than the material structures that embody it; 3) Conventional chemical and evolutionary mechanisms seem insufficient to fully explain the labyrinth of information that is life. By exploring new perspectives on biological information, this volume seeks to expand, encourage, and enrich research into the nature and origin of biological information.Contents:Session One — Information Theory & Biology: Introductory Comments (Robert J Marks II):Biological Information — What is It? (Werner Gitt, Robert Compton and Jorge Fernandez)A General Theory of Information Cost Incurred by Successful Search (William A Dembski, Winston Ewert and Robert J Marks II)Pragmatic Information (John W Oller, Jr)Limits of Chaos and Progress in Evolutionary Dynamics (William F Basener)Tierra: The Character of Adaptation (Winston Ewert, William A Dembski and Robert J Marks II)Multiple Overlapping Genetic Codes Profoundly Reduce the Probability of Beneficial Mutation (George Montañez, Robert J Marks II, Jorge Fernandez and John C Sanford)Entropy, Evolution and Open Systems (Granville Sewell)Information and Thermodynamics in Living Systems (Andy C McIntosh)Session Two — Biological Information and Genetic Theory: Introductory Comments (John C Sanford):Not Junk After All: Non-Protein-Coding DNA Carries Extensive Biological Information (Jonathan Wells)Can Purifying Natural Selection Preserve Biological Information? (Paul Gibson, John R Baumgardner, Wesley H Brewer and John C Sanford)Selection Threshold Severely Constrains Capture of Beneficial Mutations (John C Sanford, John R Baumgardner and Wesley H Brewer)Using Numerical Simulation to Test the “Mutation-Count” Hypothesis (Wesley H Brewer, John R Baumgardner and John C Sanford)Can Synergistic Epistasis Halt Mutation Accumulation? Results from Numerical Simulation (John R Baumgardner, Wesley H Brewer and John C Sanford)Computational Evolution Experiments Reveal a Net Loss of Genetic Information Despite Selection (Chase W Nelson and John C Sanford)Information Loss: Potential for Accelerating Natural Genetic Attenuation of RNA Viruses (Wesley H Brewer, Franzine D Smith and John C Sanford)DNA.EXE: A Sequence Comparison between the Human Genome and Computer Code (Josiah Seaman)Biocybernetics and Biosemiosis (Donald Johnson)Session Three — Theoretical Molecular Biology: Introductory Comments (Michael J Behe):An Ode to the Code: Evidence for Fine-Tuning in the Standard Codon Table (Jed C Macosko and Amanda M Smelser)A New Model of Intracellular Communication Based on Coherent, High-Frequency Vibrations in Biomolecules (L Dent)Getting There First: An Evolutionary Rate Advantage for Adaptive Loss-of-Function Mutations (Michael J Behe)The Membrane Code: A Carrier of Essential Biological Information That is Not Specified by DNA and is Inherited Apart from It (Jonathan Wells)Explaining Metabolic Innovation: Neo-Darwinism Versus Design (Douglas D Axe and Ann K Gauger)Session Four — Biological Information and Self-Organizational Complexity Theory: Introductory Comments (Bruce L Gordon):Evolution Beyond Entailing Law: The Roles of Embodied Information and Self Organization (Stuart Kauffman)Towards a General Biology: Emergence of Life and Information from the Perspective of Complex Systems Dynamics (Bruce H Weber)Readership: Academics, researchers, postgraduates and advanced undergraduates in bioinformatics. Biologists, mathematicians/statisticians, physicists and computer scientists.

The Origin and Early Evolution of Life: Prebiotic Chemistry of Biomolecules

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ISBN: 9783039216062 9783039216079 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-607-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Abstract

Studying the origin of life is one of man’s greatest achievements over the last sixty years. The fields of interest encompassed by this quest are multiple and interdisciplinary: chemistry, physics, biology, biochemistry, mathematics, geology but also statistics, atmospheric science, meteorology, oceanography, and astrophysics. Recent scientific discoveries, such as water on Mars and the existence of super-Earths with atmospheres similar to primordial Earth, have pushed researchers to simulate prebiotic conditions in explaining the abiotic formation of molecules essential to life. This collection of articles offers an overview of recent discoveries in the field of prebiotic chemistry of biomolecules, their formation and selection, and the evolution of complex chemical systems.

Keywords

origin of life --- systems chemistry --- Chemomimesis --- Molecular Darwinism --- origin of life --- prebiotic chemistry --- thiol-rich peptides --- cysteine --- aminonitriles --- imidazoles --- origin of life --- prebiotic chemistry --- nucleotide and nucleoside synthesis --- protein design --- novel metalloproteins --- binary patterned amino acid sequences --- prebiotic chemistry --- population growth --- replication --- growth order --- Darwinian evolution --- selection --- origin of life --- abiogenesis --- carbon fixation --- hydrothermal vents --- electrochemistry --- reduction --- digit multiplicity --- information --- transmission --- encoding --- translation --- diversity --- function --- origin of life --- layered double hydroxide (LDH) clay --- pentose diphosphate --- pentopyranose nucleic acid --- arabinopyranose nucleic acid --- RNA --- base pairing --- purine precursor --- inosine --- AICAR --- peptide/RNA world --- prebiotic information system --- translation and the genetic code --- bridge peptide and aaRS --- ribozyme and tRNA --- tRNA and mRNA --- coevolution of translation machine and the genetic code --- MVC architecture pattern and biological information --- numerical codons --- AnyLogic software for computer simulation of translation machine --- phosphoryl transfer --- metabolism --- energy currency --- mixed anhydride --- origin of life --- hypercycle --- Monte Carlo --- prebiotic chemistry --- carbamic acid --- carbon dioxide-ammonia ices --- infrared spectra --- anharmonicity --- origin of life --- metabolism --- phosphates --- network expansion simulation --- thermodynamic bottleneck --- molecular clocks --- ab initio molecular dynamics --- catalysis --- prebiotic soup --- origins of life --- aldol reaction --- mechanochemistry --- minerals --- monosaccharides --- prebiotic chemistry --- prebiotic polymerization --- nucleotide oligomerization --- abasic oligomers --- nucleotide stability --- stability as a selection pressure --- dry-wet cycles --- genetic code origin --- tRNA accretion model --- tRNA-synthetase --- metabolism --- thioester --- nucleotidyltransferases --- early peptides --- ribosome --- n/a

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